Report of Vincent Colyer
This report shows plainly that, according to the records of the Indian Department, the Apache Indians were the friends of the Americans when they first knew them; that they have always desired peace with them, and when placed upon reservations in 1858 and 1859 were industrious, intelligent, and made rapid progress in the arts of civilization; that their ill-will and constant war with the Mexicans arose from the fact that the Mexicans denied them any rights to the soil as original occupants, and waged a war of extermination against them; that the peaceable relations of the Apaches with the Americans continued until the latter adopted the Mexican theory of "extermination" and by sets of inhuman treachery and cruelty made them our implacable foes: that this policy has resulted in a war which, in the last ten years, has cost us a thousand lives and over forty millions of dollars, and the country is no quieter nor the Indians any nearer extermination than they were at the time of the Gadsden purchase; that the present war will cost the people of the United States between three and four millions of dollars this year; that these Indians still beg for peace, and all of them can be placed on reservations and fed at an expense of less than half a million of dollars a year, without the loss of a life.
On representing these facts to the President, Commissioner Colyer was directed to proceed to New Mexico and Arizona, and there take such measures as he deemed wisest to locate these Apache Indians upon suitable reservations, feed, clothe, and otherwise care for them; and the President instructed the War Department to co-operate with the commissioner. In obedience to these orders, he went to those Territories, and in consultation with the officers of the Army, Indian agents, and the Apache chiefs, he selected suitable reservations in four localities, remote from settlements, invited the Indians to come in, and left them in charge of the Indian agents in New Mexico, and officers of the Army under General Crook, in Arizona. The Indians came in gladly in large numbers, and at last advices over four thousand, being one-half of all the roving Apaches, were living peaceably upon the reservations; that no depredations have been committed by any of these Indians since they came in; and that before spring, if they are unmolested, and have sufficient food, he believes we shall have peace re-stored to these Territories; that Major Generals Schofield, Stoneman, and other Army officers, reported that the Apaches, who came into the military posts last year paid for a large part of the rations issued to them by supplying hay and wood to the garrisons at much less cost to the Government than that paid to the contractors for the Army. The report further shows that the act of Captain Nelson, the Army officer in command at Camp Grant, in turning back the party of two hundred armed citizens, who imperiously demanded to cross the Indian reservation at that post, was necessary, saved the three hundred Indians collected there from another bloody massacre, and the nation from a disgrace, and thanks Captain Nelson for it. The order countermanding the previous order of General Crook, of employing Apaches to fight Apaches, was made by the general himself, greatly to his honor. The commissioner traveled through the heart of the Apache country with an escort of fifteen men, and though the Indians came around them day and night in scores, frequently outnumbering them five to one, not an animal was disturbed or an article stolen. He was received with cordiality by General Granger, General Crook, and all the officers of the Army in New Mexico and Arizona, and that there was at no time any discord of action. On his return to Washington, the reservations selected by the commissioner, and the arrangements made by him for the protection and subsistence of the Indians upon them, under the care of the officers of the Army under General Crook, were approved by the President, the Secretary of the Interior, and directions given by General Sherman for their permanency.
Of the complaints made by officials and editors in Arizona, of a want of courtesy toward the white people, as well as of the numerous threats against his life, the vituperation and abuse of the press of Arizona and California, the commissioner takes but slight notice, as the business for which he was sent was accomplished, and he trusts for his vindication to time and the good results with which he believes God will prosper the work.
For the last fifteen years the records of the Indian Department show that the Apache Indians of New Mexico and Arizona have desired peace, and the agents of the Government have asked in vain that means might be supplied them to place these Indians on reservations and feed them. In 1857 M. Steck, the Apache Indian agent for New Mexico, which then included Arizona, wrote: "In my last annual report I urged the necessity of liberally supplying the Indians of my agency with food. Another year’s experience and close observation has still more forcibly impressed me with the conviction that this is the only means of effectually controlling the Apache tribe." The language of a former Secretary of War, when urging the policy of feeding the Indians of Texas, is peculiarly applicable to the Apaches of New Mexico: "Brave men with arms in their hands will not starve, nor see their children starve around them while the means of subsistence is within their reach. To locate the Apaches and teach them the cultivation of the soil and other arts of peace is the only policy that can be adopted with a reasonable hope of advancing them in civilization, and giving protection to property in this Territory. This course will require time and liberal appropriations to supply them with food. If they are located, they must be abandon their marauding expeditions, whereby one-half of their substinence is cut off." And he speaks from experience when he says: "The success that has attended the farming operations with those bands for the last two years has removed every doubt as to the practicability of this policy. If they are not provided for as I propose, they must continue to feed themselves upon the white man's property, the inevitable consequence of which will be a continued state of hostility, requiring, on the part of the military department, the organization of large campaigns to fight them, at the sacrifice of life and an immense expense to the Government. Two campaigns have been made within the last three years—one against Gila, at an expense, directly and indirectly, to the Government of $800,000; and I feel confident that I will be sustained by all who are familiar with the number and resources of those Indians, in the assertion, that if one-twentieth part of that sum had been judiciously expended annually for provisions, the campaigns might have been prevented." The urgent appeals of Agent Steck were heeded, and a small appropriation made for the Apaches in 1858. Of the good results of this liberality this is the way he writes: "The Mescalero band of Apaches are still living in the White and Sacramento mountains in the immediate vicinity of Fort Stanton, and the most friendly relations have been maintained between those Indians and the military authorities of that post during the year. With the bands west of the Rio Grande, since my last annual report, our relations have been of the most friendly character. During the year not a single depredation has been committed on the California road east of the Chilihuihui Mountains, and parties of from two to five men are constantly traveling that road from the Rio Grande to Fort Buchanan undisturbed."
Of the abuses practiced upon them in 1858, he writes:
"The Mimbres and Mogollon bands seem willing to be controlled by the advice of their agent, and have confidence in the kind intentions of the Government toward them. In their intercourse with the citizens they have suffered many impositions; have been made drunk; have been swindled out of their horses, and many of them stolen by the Mexicans, at or near the agency. They have also been murdered in cold blood, yet not a single instance is known of their having committed a murder, or even stolen a horse to retaliate for their wrongs."
"I encouraged such a union, and now many of the Mogollon band live with those of the Mimbres, and have corn planted together, and among them their old chief, Magnus Colorado. If, therefore, the proposition to locate them together should meet the approbation of the superintendent, there will he no difficulty in its accomplishment."
Of their ability and willingness to cultivate the soil, he reports:
"The interest manifested in the farming operations has been greater than in any former year. Having no lands set apart for them by treaty, they were advised to plant upon their old fields on the Rio Mimbres and upon the Rio Palmos. They have, in all about one hundred and fifty acres planted, and in a state of cultivation that will compare well with any corn-field in the country; and all by their own labor, except the breaking up of the land, digging, and repairing of, their acequias."
"The White Mountain Coyoteros have occasionally visited the agency during the year, have remained quiet, and faithfully kept their promise that no depredations should be committed on the California road as far west as their country extended." The Coyoteros are by far the most powerful branch of the Apache tribe, They occupy the north side of the Gila and its northern tributaries, from the Mogollon Mountains to near the Pima villages.
"The White Mountain Coyoteros is that portion of the Apaches living north of the Gila, upon, the Rio San Francisco (Verde River) and headwaters of the Salinas; they occupy a fine country, with many beautiful mountains, streams, and rich, fertile valleys for cultivation, This division numbers two thousand five hundred souls, of whom six hundred are warriors. In all their intercourse with the Government, their deportment toward travelers and traders, they have shown themselves to be the most reliable of all the bands of the Apaches."
In 1867 he had a peace talk with the chiefs of the Piñals, and reports: "The result of these meetings was very satisfactory, and, up to the present time, no well-authenticated robbery has been committed by them, Many attempts have been made by interested and dishonest parties to create the impression the Piñals are stealing, with the hope of inducing the department commander to send more troops to their territory. I know, however, that the country has never been so safe as at present." Of their industry and intelligence, in 1868, he writes: "The Piñal and White Mountain Coyoteros cultivate the soil extensively, raise wheat, corn, beans, and pumpkins in abundance. In this particular they are far in advance of all the other Apaches. They have some game, mescal, and tuna to subsist on, and, as no settlements yet encroach upon their country, all they will need for a few years will be a liberal distribution of presents yearly, and some hoes and spades, to enable them to cultivate the soil more extensively."
John Walker, who was appointed agent for the Pimos and Maricopas, in 1859, reports on the Piñal Apaches thus: "It might here be proper also to report the disposition, as near as possible, of the Piñals, who visit me frequently, professing great love for the American people, and say they will not violate the treaty made last March with Agent M. Steck, which I am disposed to credit, as they have been visiting Tucson ever since, and I have no recollection of any animal being stolen which the Indians have been charged with. I had a long talk with them; they appeared very candid. As they tell the same consistent tale every time, I am compelled to give them credit, for they have frequently met Americans, and not interrupted them in any way, when there were but two or three to together, and the number of Indians was large.
The Mexican government, formerly in possession of this Territory, differed widely from ours in its policy and views in relation to the rights of the Indians in the soil. That government held that the Indian had no rights, as original possessors of the land, which it was in any manner bound to respect, and to this policy is due the unceasing war which has been waged by this brave people against the Mexicans.
When the Americans first came among them bringing the better traditions of their country with them, and treating them as a people whose rights to the soil not having yet been extinguished by treaty or otherwise, were entitled to some respect, and so treated them kindly, the Apaches received them as friends. But with the natural gravitation toward barbarism which seems inherent in human nature when left unrestrained, as in the life on the border, the Americans soon learned to follow the example of the Mexicans, and adopting their anti-christian law of "might makes right," began to treat the Apaches as incumbrances to he exterminated. They reaped the bloody fruits of that policy in a war which has cost us a thousand lives and forty millions of dollars."
Mr. J. H. Lyman, of Northampton, who spent a year in 1840 and 1841 among the Apaches of Arizona, relates an incident which occurred among the Apaches at a time when they treated Americans with the most cordial hospitality.
"The Indians were then, as now, hostile to the Mexicans of Sonora, and they were constantly making raids into that State, and driving off the cattle. The Mexicans feared them, and were unable to meet them man to man. At that time American trappers found the beaver very abundant about the headwaters of the Gila river, among those rich mountain valleys where the Apaches had, and still have, their secure retreats. At the time I speak of there were two companies of trappers in that region. One of the companies, about seventeen men, was under a captain named Johnson. The other company consisted of thirty men, I think. I was trapping on another head of the Gila, several miles north. The valleys were full of Apaches, but all peaceful toward the white men, both Indians and whites visiting each other's camps constantly and fearlessly, with no thought of treachery or evil. Besides the Mexicans, the only enemies of the Apaches were the Pi-Utes and Navajoes on the northwest. But here in their fastness they felt themselves safe from all foes.
"One day Johnson concluded to go down into Sonora on a spree, as was occasionally the way with mountain men. He there saw the governor of the department, who, knowing that he had the confidence of the Indians, offered him an ounce of gold for every Apache scalp he would bring him. The bargain was struck. Johnson procured
"The Apaches at once showed that they could imitate their more civilized brothers. Immediately a band of them went in search of the other company of trappers, who, of course, were utterly unconscious of Johnson's infernal work. They were attacked unprepared and nearly all killed, and the story that the Apaches were treacherous and cruel went forth into all the land, but nothing of the wrongs they had received."
The "Penole treaty by King Woolsey," as it is called, of 1863, narrated by J. Ross Browne, esq., in his "Adventures in the Apache Country," (10th chapter,) in which twenty-four Piñal and Tonti Apaches were treacherously murdered by Woolsey's party of white men and Maricopa allies while they were seated by their side in perfect confidence and security, having laid down their arms and came in under a promise of protection and pledge of peace. The killing of the Coyotero Apache chief, Magnus Colorado, arrested through deception and under false charges, by pushing a heated bayonet through the canvas tent in which he was prisoner, and shooting him when he moved, under the pretense that he was trying to escape. The equally treacherous attempt to kill his brother-in-law and successor, the present famous chief Cochise, by inviting him in under a flag of truce and then attempting to take him prisoner, and, as he bravely cut his way out of the tent, shooting him in the leg and killing his relatives who remained prisoners in the tent. And more recently the massacre at Camp Grant, which has shocked all Christendom, wherein one hundred and eighteen women and children and eight men were killed in cold blood by white people of Tucson and their Papago allies, while they were sleeping in confidence under the "protection" of the American flag "as prisoners of war." (See Appendix A b, No. 2.) Events like these and many others would seem to be quite sufficient to have made these Apaches the "blood-thirsty and relentless savages" they are now reported to be.
With these official records before us, showing the injustice and folly of their treatment by the Mexicans in denying them any rights to the soil on which they lived as the original occupants; their good-will toward the Americans, who, on their first acquaintance, treated them justly; their industrious habits and peaceable character when placed upon reservations and allowed a fair opportunity to gain a livelihood; the inhuman treachery and cruelty on the part of white men, which has made them our implacable foes, and the heavy cost, both life and treasure, which these events have entailed upon us, we have felt it to be our duty, for the last three years, to endeavor to better the condition of the Apache Indians of Arizona. Of the present character of these Indians there is not much difference of opinion between "Christians" and "Exterminators," but in their treatment as one believes in their salvation, the other in their destruction—there is disagreement.
Congress, at the earnest solicitation of the board, having passed the appropriation of $70,000, referred to in our report of last year, "to collect the Apache Indians of Arizona and New Mexico upon reservations, furnish them with subsistence and other necessary articles, and to promote peace and civilization among them," the board at its meeting in May directed "its secretary to visit the Apache country, to take such measures as might seem expedient to prevent the perpetration of further outrages like the Camp Grant massacre, and, if possible, avert the apprehended war."
On the 13th of July, in company with Commissioner George H. Stuart, I called upon the President at Long Branch New Jersey, and reporting to him the condition of affairs in New Mexico and Arizona, we received letters from him to the Secretary of the Interior and Secretary of War, directing that enlarged powers be given to such agent as the Secretary of the Interior might select to effect "so desirable an object" as above indicated. (See Appendix A b, No. 4.)
The order of the Secretary of War was as follows:
Washington, July 18, 1871.
"SIR: I have the honor to inform you the President directs that so far as your resources will permit, assistance be given in provisions and transportation and military protection to Mr. Vincent Colyer, of the Indian commission in endeavoring to collect the wild Indians of New Mexico and Arizona upon a reservation at Cañada Alamosa; and also to such Indians as may he induced to come in, both on the way and after arrival at the reservation."Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
"E. D. TOWNSEND,
"THE COMMANDING GENERAL,
"Department of the Missouri, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas"
My first report was as follows :
Board of Indian Commissioners:
Agreeably to the request contained in the letter of authority from the Hon. B. R Cowen, Acting Secretary of Interior, under date 21st of July, that I should "from time to time report to the Department my action and progress, and the result of my investigations on the condition of Indian affairs in New Mexico and Arizona," I have the honor to report: That on the day after the receipt of that letter, on the arrival of the Hon. John D. Lang, to take my place in the office in Washington, as member of the executive committee of the board of Indian commissioners, I left for this place via New York.
On my way through Pittsburgh finding that the orders issued from the War Department did not correspond with the authority received from the Department of the Interior, I telegraphed to the President as follows :
"TO U. S. GRANT, PRESIDENT UNITED STATES,
Long Branch, New Jersey:
"SIR: In your letter of 13th instant to Secretary of War, you directed that protection should be given to Indians desiring peace, under our care, coming in at Cañada Alamosa, New Mexico. Later advices show that they are one hundred and fifty miles southwest of that place. General Parker, in his letter to Secretary of the Interior, (see Appendix A b, No. 8,) suggesting my instructions, recommends that I be invested with discretionary powers to whatever, in my judgment, may appear most wise and proper in locating the roving tribes of Arizona and New Mexico upon suitable reservations, and the Secretary has so instructed me.
"In the event of my not being able to get the Indians to Cañada Alamosa, would it not be well for you to direct the War Department to enlarge its orders protecting us, not only there, but at such other reservations as I may select, in harmony with instructions with the Indian Bureau? A line added to General Townsend's order of the 18th instant would do it."Please telegraph to me early your action, care General Pope, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas."
On arriving at Leavenworth I received from General Porter, the President's secretary, a reply that my "message had been sent to the Secretary of War and answer sent to me at Leavenworth," which answer was received the following day, as follows :
On receipt of the above dispatch, on my arrival at Lawrence, Kansas, I telegraphed to you as follows :
"Agreeably to powers conferred upon me by the President, and communicated in your instructions of 21st instant and to-day's supplementary order of War Department of this date to order of 18th instant, I have selected Camp Grant, in Arizona Territory, as a reservation on the west, where the Apache Indians are to be protected and fed, and beg that the War Department be earnestly requested to retain Lieutenant Whitman in charge, and that he be instructed to send out Indian runners to notify all peaceably disposed Apaches to come in and find asylum there, and the order be telegraphed to Department of the Pacific to forward promptly to Arizona.
"Please telegraph your action to me at Santa Fé. My plan is to have this reservation at Camp Grant on western border, and another which I will select in New Mexico, on eastern border of Apache country, when I get there, and bring in, feed, and protect all Apaches who wish to be at peace. The expenses to be paid from the special appropriation for the Indian Department."
On my arrival at Santa Fé I received a dispatch from the Secretary of the Interior as follows, dated August 1, 1871:
"Your telegrams received. War Department requested to act as you desire."C. DELANO, Secretary."
And from the War Department this reply :
"Instructions telegraphed for retention of Lieutenant Whitman and employment of runners as requested."E. D TOWNSEND,
Nathaniel Pope, the superintendent of Indian affairs for New Mexico, reports that "the Southern Apache Indians continue to come in to Cañada Alamosa, There are now over twelve hundred at that place* --the majority well behaved and peaceable. Beef and corn only---for food--being issued to them, with a small amount of calico, manta, and a few shirts to cover the extremely naked." In so large a number it would be strange if there were not some dishonest ones, and therefore you will not be surprised to hear that several thefts of oxen and horses were traced to Indians an this reservation. They were promptly detected, however, by the Indian chiefs, who at once reported them to the agent, O. F. Piper, who delivered up the stolen stock to their respective owners. (See inclosed paper marked A b, No. 7.)
On the 30th of July, Hon, R. Hudson, probate judge of Grant County, New Mexico, inclosed to Colonel Pope the following series of resolutions passed by the citizens at a public meeting at Rio Mimbres New Mexico, 19th July, 1871:
"Resolved, That the people of Grant County, New Mexico, organize themselves into a posse and follow their stock to wherever it may be, and take it by force wherever found, even if it be at the sacrifice of every Indian man, women, and child, in the tribe.
"Resolved, That if opposed by Indians or their accomplices, be they Indian agents, Indian traders, or Army officers, let them be looked upon as our worst enemies sand the common enemies of New Mexico, and be dealt with accordingly." (Appendix A b, No. 8.)
And the Hon. R. Hudson wrote as follows:
"What we want to know is, whether our stock can be recovered or not from Indians on your reservation, when fully proved and identified, or if we are to be forever at the mercy of these thieving murderous apaches, who have a ‘house of refuge' at Alamosa; if so, the sooner we know it the better, because the citizens of this county are determined to put a stop to it, and if they carry out their programme the Camp Grant massacre will be thrown entirely in the shade, and, Alamosa will rank next to Sand Creek." (See accompanying document A b, No. 7.)
Superintendent Pope (See his letter marked A b, No. 9) has asked that troops be placed at Cañada Alamosa, and as I hope to visit the Indians there early next week, if I find the place suitable, I will designate it as a reservation, and call upon the military to protect it agreeably to your instructions of the 21st ultimo, and the orders of the War Department of the 18th ultimo.
Before leaving Santa Fé I received a letter from Agent Arny, of the Pueblos, written by C. E. Cooley, esq., dated "Camp Apache, Arizona Territory, July 26,1871," marked A b, 10, giving an account of the good conduct and poverty of a band of Coyotero Apaches at that place, who, for several years past, under their chief Miguel, have been living peaceably and using their best endeavors to induce the other portion of their band under Cochise, who is a Coyotero, to do the same. Remembering that the records of the Department amply testified to the general truth of this letter, immediately on its receipt I wrote to N. Pope, esq., superintendent of Indian affairs for New Mexico, requesting him to see that these Indians, 400 in number, be promptly supplied with beef, corn, and clothing to an amount not exceeding two thousand dollars; and as Agent Arny had been previously instructed to go to the Pueblo Village at Zuni to send out Indian runners to inform the roving Apaches that, if they wish for peace, they must come in upon the reservations either at Camp Grantor Cañada Alamosa, and, as Zuni was but 100 miles from Camp Apache, I requested Superintendent Pope to employ Mr. Arny to execute that order, (Appendix A b, No. 11) Superintendent Pope immediately gave the necessary instructions, and I am in hopes that Agent Arny is on his way to Camp Apache before this with the supplies and order to purchase the beef.
Before leaving Santa Fé I telegraphed to you briefly the situation of Indian affairs in New Mexico, (Appendix A b, No. 12.) The discontent of the Utes referred to in that telegram demands our serious consideration. By the reports of the agents for the last three years, and reports of our board, 1870, page 105, you will find full information on the subject. On my way through Cimmaron, Agent C. F. Roedel earnestly called my attention to their situation, and begged us most earnestly not to overlook them any longer. Both whites and Indians disregard the treaty and consider it a fraud.
In company with Superintendent Pope, and John Ward, esq., as interpreter, I left Santa Fé on the 14th instant for Fort Craig, where we arrived on the 16th instant after a hot and fatiguing ride night and day. Major Buffum, commanding Fort Craig, with great kindness fitted us out with a team and ambulance, and the next day, 17th instant, we started for Cañada Alamosa, distant forty-two miles southwest.
On our arrival at the agency at Cañada Alamosa, we found all the Apaches had left the place, (as I telegraphed to you that day,) frightened away by the threats from the residents at Rio Mimbres, New Mexico, as contained in the resolutions quoted above. (See Appendix A b, No. 8.)
Agent Piper, who is a discreet and able officer, on receiving a copy of those resolutions, together with Judge Hudson's letter, sent to Fort McRae for a detachment of soldiers, who were sent up to the reservation that day.
Immediately on the arrival of the soldiers, the Apaches, who are the most scary Indians I have seen, called upon Agent Piper to know the reason for their coming. It was necessary to tell them, as they have a great dread of the soldiers, having met them for the past eight years only as enemies; and as soon as Mr. Piper informed them that they came as friends, they were satisfied; but the news that the people of Rio Mimbres threatened to attack them, as their friends had been killed at Camp Giant, they were afraid to remain, and that night, Thursday, a week ago, they stampeded to the mountains, where they have remained ever since. The day after our arrival I rode up the valley, and could see hundreds of their wicker wigwams standing, but not an Indian was to be seen. We sent out runners, and toward night some twenty or thirty came in; and the day following being Saturday, when the rations are issued, seventy-five or eighty out of twelve hundred were all that could be gathered. Is it not a shame that a few lawless white men can thus be allowed to overturn all the good work of the Government, costing thousands of dollars, and, by their unrestrained conduct, risk the bringing about of a costly war, and jeopardize the lives of hundreds of innocent people?
However, we are not discouraged. All the Apaches who came in were, physically, of a slighter build than any Indians I have seen, but in other respects equal to any.
I had a talk with the headmen, and told them of the friendly intentions of the Government toward them so long as they remained at peace. None of the chiefs being present, the headmen declined to say anything until their return.
The valley of Cañada Alamosa (Cottonwood Valley) is beautiful. A stream of pure spring water, eight feet wide by one foot deep, flowing rapidly through it. Every acre of it is occupied by the Mexicans, who have a town of over three hundred inhabitants in the midst of it. The Indians claim the valley as their own, and will be reluctant to go far from the neighborhood. To attempt to buy out the Mexicans, as has been proposed by some, when there are millions acres of unoccupied land in the immediate neighborhood, I feel would be preposterous. As the Indians are now in a state of transition, not unlike a swarm of bees seeking for a hive, I shall endeavor, as quickly as possible, to find them another place as near to Cañada Alamosa as practicable. For
As I said, the two Indians were very reticent, and left the impression on us all that they knew more than they were willing to communicate of Cochise’s whereabouts.
We arrived here at midnight on Saturday night, 19th instant. At 4 o'clock, Sunday morning, 20th instant, we were awakened by a courier who had ridden all night over from the agency. He came with a letter from Agent Piper saying that a brother of Cochise had arrived with eighteen more Apaches, twenty days from Cochise's band, who said that Cochise had sent them, saying that "they would find a good peace here with us," and that they must come and stay.
Last night, 21st instant, another courier arrived from Cañada Alamosa. He came to inform us that a Mexican named Troero, whom Superintendent Pope, a week before I arrived, had sent out to find Cochise, had returned with the information that he had been ordered back, by General Crook, with a reprimand. (See Agent Piper's letter herewith inclosed, marked A b. No. 19.)
Since my last letter, dated August 22, 1871, I have the honor to report that, in company with Nathaniel Pope, superintendent of Indian affairs in New Mexico, John Ward as interpreter, and Philip Gonzalez as guide, with an escort of twenty soldiers under a sergeant of the Fifteenth U. S. Infantry, Company K, we left Camp Craig, New Mexico, on the 23d of August, 1871, with fifteen days' rations, for the Apache Indian country, in New Mexico and Arizona, to inspect the upper valley of the Cañada Alamosa, beyond the mountains, at Hot Springs, "Ojo Caliente," and the Tularosa Valley, to ascertain their suitableness for an Indian reservation. After a very interesting ride of three days, traveling about twenty-eight miles a day and camping at night, we arrived at noon of the 25th at Ojo Caliente. We here met, by appointment, O. F. Piper, esq., agent for the Southern Apaches, who, in company with Señor Trojero, alcalde of the Mexican village of Cañada, his nephew, and Sergeant Stackpole, Fifteenth United States Infantry, had ridden on horseback over the mountains which run between the Cañada proper and the Springs. They also brought with them Loco, one of the Apache chiefs, who had been in company with Señor Trojero over to Arizona in search of Cochise, under the direction of Superintendent Pope, who has already forwarded to the Department an account of their expedition, and of its failure, owing to Trojero's having fallen in with General Crook, commanding department of Arizona, and being, as he says, ordered back and forbidden to pursue his errand further.
We examined the neighborhood of Ojo Caliente (Hot Springs) carefully, and finding the area of land capable of being cultivated far too small for the necessities of a tribe so large as this band of Southern Apaches, we were very reluctantly compelled to seek further. Its proximity to Cañada Alamosa, though separated by high hills or mountains, and, like that valley, it being a favorite place of resort of the Indians, made us hope to find it suitable for a reservation.
These stories, circulated by Trojero among them; his having been sent back by General Crook, together with the excitement produced by the threats of massacre from the settlers at Rio Mimbres, so alarmed the Indians that it was next to impossible to secure an interview with them. Although Agent Piper had promised any and all of them presents, who would come out to meet the "commissioner from Washington," whom they were eager to see, only two, Loco and Francisco, the Navajo interpreter, could be persuaded to trust themselves, and Loco trembled like a frightened child when they saw us coming. Time, however, with patience and care, will yet succeed. We left Ojo Caliente on Saturday, 26th August, resting over Sunday, and, after a very interesting trip, we arrived at the Tularosa Valley on the 29th August, and the White Mountain reservation, this place, on the 2d September.
I carefully inspected the valley and neighborhood of the Tularosa River, and finding the same to possess most of the requisites necessary for a home for the Indians, it being remote from white settlements, surrounded by mountain not easily crossed, sufficient arable land, good water, and plenty of wood and game, I officially notified Colonel Pope that I would designate it as an Indian reservation, agreeably to the authority given to me by you in your letter of the 21st July and I telegraphed to the Secretary of the Interior, via Santa Fé, to that effect, on the 29th August. (See Appendix A b, No. 16.)
I was received very kindly by Colonel Green, commanding, and the officers of the post, at Camp Apache, and found that at the time of my arrival dispatches had been received from General Crook at Camp Verde, countermanding his order to enlist Apache Indians to fight Apaches, which was construed by those present to mean a virtual suspension of hostilities. This order of General Crook, abandoning the practice of taking peaceable Indians from the corn-fields and compelling them to go on the war-path against their brethren, speaks much for his humanity and good sense, and was a great relief to my mind. The General being on his way to Prescott, where his headquarters are established, and his campaign for the present being at an end, all fears of my orders crossing his movements are now removed. There are several tribes and bands of Indians, who have lived here for many generations, and who could not be removed to either Camp Grant or the Tularosa Valley without great suffering to themselves, possibly a war or great expense to the Government, and as this reservation had been set apart for this special purpose by the War Department, under the advice of the late General Thomas, I concluded, with the matured advice of Colonel John Green, to select it as a reservation, and asked that the protection, provisioning, etc., ordered by the Government, be extended to the Indians at this place also. I enclose you a copy of my letter to Colonel Green upon the subject, (Appendix A b, No. 15.) Before leaving Santa Fé I believe that I reported that I had set apart $2,000, to be expended and forwarded under the superintendence of W. T. M. Arny, agent of the Pueblos, for clothing, a few agricultural implements, subsistence, etc. Agent Arny came in the day after our arrival, with about $1,200 worth of clothing, etc., in good order and well selected. We have waited four days for the Indians to come in, and to-day about three hundred and forty reported.
I inclose several reports of Lieutenant Colonel Green, (see Appendix A b, No. 15,) giving an account of his experience with and the character of these Apaches. By referring to one of these letters you will see Colonel Green, First Cavalry, says: "The Apache Indians furnished one hundred and ninety tons of hay, for which he paid them in flour. They brought it into his camp, in White Mountains, fifteen tons a day. They supplied the garrison with all the wood they used, bringing it in at the rate of thirty cords a day, using their hands and a few old broken axes to break it off, and the hay they cut with old knives, and the whole was brought into the post on their backs, and it was really interesting to see with what spirit they went to work, and what nice, clean hay they brought in, much superior to any I have seen furnished by contractors in Arizona. Yesterday upward of four thousand pounds were brought. Even the children went to work with alacrity. One little child that could scarcely more than walk brought in nine pounds, for which he received three-quarters of a pound of flour, and was highly delighted with his success. I propose to supply the new post with hay in the same way, which will be much cheaper than if done by contract."
I was sorry that the supply of grain at this post did not admit of my complying fully with the general's wishes in giving them corn for seed. I could illy spare a very small
Immediately after the massacre of the peaceable Indians at Camp Grant by the citizens of Tucson, (see Appendix A b, No. 2.) the news was received by the peaceable Apaches on the White Mountain reservation, and nearly all of them, some six hundred in number, under the leadership of Es-cet-e-cela, their chief, fled frightened to the mountains. The evening before their departure, (supplied) a herder, a soldier detailed for that duty, was killed. The only band which remained was Miguel's, numbering about two hundred and seventy-five Indians, under that chief. Colonel Green demanded of Miguel the arrest of the murderer; Miguel replied that he did not belong to his band. The colonel persisted, and Miguel sent out and had one of Es-cet-e-cela's Indians killed, and parts of the body brought in as testimony that the order was executed. On the arrival of General Crook some twenty-five Indians belonging to Miguel’s band were enlisted as scouts, much against their will as we afterward learned, to operate against the other Apaches.
These twenty-five Indians, acting under Colonel Guy V. Henry's orders, had attacked a rancherio within hearing of the garrison at Camp Apache, and killed five Indians of Es-cet-e-cela's band. As I before reported to you, on the evening of my arrival at the reservation, four couriers, arrived from General Crook, at Camp Verde, one hundred and sixty miles distant, from which place they had ridden in three days, with orders to discontinue the enlistment of Indians, the orders having previously been to enlist as many as one hundred.
Hearing that Es-cet-e-cela was in the mountains near the post, I dispatched his son-in-law, a Mr. Stevens, mail-rider at the post, with a message for him to come in, a promise of protection, and a suit of clothes. Miguel had been sent for by Colonel Green, some days before. The two chiefs arrived the same afternoon, September 6th, and visited me apart.
I told Es-cet-e-cela the war was over, and all offenses must be forgiven. He said the soldier-herder was not killed by one of his band, but by an Indian from Rio Bonita, sent over by the Indian survivors from Camp Grant massacre to stir them up to war. He complained of Miguel's killing an innocent Indian for it, and afterward for killing five more of his band without cause. We had hard work to reconcile him, but, with the aid of Colonel Green and Mr. Cooley, the interpreter, we succeeded. The chiefs met, stood some forty feet apart, eyeing each other, with arms folded haughtily. The interpreter stepped up, and, leading Miguel forward, put his hand into the band of Es-cet-e-cela when they first shook hands and then embraced.
The next day we opened the boxes of clothing, coats, pantaloons, manta (sheeting,) calico, thread, needles, awls, handkerchiefs, and blankets, and placing them in charge of Mrs. Colonel Green, who has been a warm friend of the Indians, arranged the Apaches in bands and families, and, taking a careful list of the names of the heads of all the families, with the number of their wives and children, Mrs. Green distributed to every one, three hundred and sixty-two persons all told, a suit of good clothing. Without being solicited to do so, the chiefs all dressed in coats and pantaloons, and many more young men requested pantaloons and coats than we could supply. When all had
A few hours before the issue of clothing, the following interview with the Apache chiefs was held at Camp Apache, (Fort Thomas,) Arizona Territory, September 7, 1871: In the presence of Colonel John Green and the officers of the post, Commissioner Colyer opened the council with prayer, and, addressing the chiefs, said his words would be few; Colonel Green would inform them what his orders were from the President. The colonel told them that he was instructed to feed all the Apaches who came in and remained peaceable upon the reservation, the boundaries of which were explained to them. Commissioner Colyer then said that the great council (Congress) at its last, session appropriated money to feed and clothe them so long as they remained at peace and upon the reservation; if they went off the reservations they were liable to be killed.
Es-CET-E-CELA shakes hands: " He asked God's blessing upon this meeting. It is getting late and he has but little to say. He has heard all that is said, and before God he believes that it is good. To-night he will sleep well. He won't have to tread sleepless over the mountains, but has a plain road. Now they have grass, can hunt the turkey, and have what they need. Some of his people are absent, but he will get word to them as soon as possible; for the purpose of getting them in he wants a pass."
Commissioner COLYER said : "The colonel will give into him."
MIGUEL.--"He has but little to say. He sees now that we have fixed things so that he won't have any stones to stumble against. He, like the commissioner, has but little to say, but what little he does say he means to live up to. His reputation is well known as a man of peace. He likes his home and quiet way of living. He has always been a farmer on the Carriso, and that valley has been father and mother to him. He sees that when the soldiers do wrong they have balls and chains to their feet, therefore he is afraid to do wrong, nor has he any desire to. In his youth he was wild, but since he was up to Santa Fé and talked with his governor, he has kept on the Carriso and worked his farm. He asked for Stevens and Cooley as his agents. He knows Cooley, and wants him to keep his young men from going out. Some of his people are sick, and he has corn to gather, so he wants to go home in the morning. He will come in to see the colonel whenever he can. Some time since he was told his father from Washington would come, and now he has come. His beef and his corn will be weighed out to him, when call he reach up to it? He would like his beef issued on the hoof, so that he can get the hide and tallow. (The colonel so promised.) He sees that peace has been actually restored. When his young men return from General Crook, he will see that they do not go soldiering any more. It is well one of his soldiers came back sick."
The morning after the distribution of clothing, Miguel, Es-cet-a-cela, and Pedro with several head-men, called at our quarters to bid us good-by. Miguel said he should pray to the Great Spirit to take care of the commissioner, and hereafter, if any soldier kicked him, (Miguel,) he should send him word to tell the President.
We left Camp Apache at noon, September 8, 1871, for Camp Grant, Arizona, with an escort of ten mounted infantry, under Lieutenant Peter S. Bomus; a pack-train to tarry our provender, with some clothing for the Indians at Camp Grant, and such Indians as we might meet by the way. We had two Indian young men, one from Miguel's and one from Es-cet-e-cela's band, to accompany us, to act as runners to communicate with any Apaches they might meet, and inform them of the peaceful intentions of the President, and of the establishment of reservations, with protection and food for all who wished to be at peace.
Our route lay across the mountains to Black River, over to the head-waters of the San Carlos, down the San Carlos to the Gila River, across the Gila to Mount Trumbull, over that mountain to and down the Aravapa Valley to Camp Grant. Our march through this portion of the heart of the Apache country was very encouraging. Our Indian guides, improvising white flags and signaling their friends of our approach by lighting fires and making smokes, brought them out by scores. They met us on the trail, bearing white flags made of white buckskin, and came from the most inaccessible places and from where you would least expect them. At night our camp was surrounded with them, and the soldiers soon got so used to their presence that we all slept soundly though they frequently outnumbered us five to one. During the whole march, though we were thus surrounded, not an animal was disturbed nor an article stolen. We opened our packs and distributed clothing to all, old and young.
I have visited seven-eighths of all the Indians now under our flag, including Alaska, and I have not seen a more intelligent, cheerful, and grateful tribe of Indians than the roving Apaches of Arizona and New Mexico.
We arrived at Camp Grant on the 13th instant, and found a white flag flying over the post, the effect of the telegram forwarded to its commander through the kindness of the Secretary of Interior and the Secretary of War on the 3d of August last. We were hospitably received by Lieutenant Royal E. Whitman and Captain Wm. Nelson, commanding the post. Soon after our arrival we learned that a company of one hundred and seventy-five or two hundred armed white citizens from Tucson (the town where the body of citizens came from who committed the massacre some few months since) were on their way to, and within twelve miles of, the reservation, and were expected in on the morrow. Two Mexican couriers, who had arrived some days previous, reported that the expedition was gotten up with a view to breaking up the reservation. Captain Thos. S. Dunn, Twenty-first United States Infantry, and Agent Wilbur, of the Papagos, who came up with the party, informed us that it was a party of "prospecters," who were coming through the reservation on their way to the mountains. At the same time we were informed that Governor Stafford, with a party of three hundred citizens, who had recently passed through the reservation, were expected in on their return homeward on the morrow. As the reservation is within a valley and surrounded with mountains, without a road or trail through it leading anywhere, and as the Indians had only just come in after much persuasion, and were under evident fears of another attack, the impropriety of allowing these armed bands of citizens to rendezvous upon the reservation was apparent. As either the Indians or these citizens had to leave the reservation, I promptly informed Captain Nelson that if he permitted the citizens to come nearer than ten miles of the post, I would have to send out Indian runners to the Apaches, and, gathering them together, ask him for a sufficient escort to conduct them with me over to the White Mountain reservation. Captain Nelson replied that he should regret to have me do that, and instead he would forbid the party of citizens from approaching nearer than within ten miles of the post; and he issued an order to that effect. (See Appendix A b, No. 17.) He forwarded this order by a corporal and four men that evening, who met the party twelve miles away. At 4 o’clock the corporal sent in word that he had met the leaders, and that they had declared that "they would cross the reservation." Captain Nelson then directed Lieutenant Whitman to ride out and meet the party and inform them that he was prepared to enforce his order, and had his guns in position, and would open fire upon them or their appearance at the month of the cañon opposite the post; Captain Nelson loading up the water-wagon belonging to the post and sending it out to them, that they might not suffer in case they should conclude to go back, which the report of Captain Nelson says they very reluctantly consented to do. They left with the declaration that they could use the white flag as well as we, and if that would bring in the Indians they would bring them in and put them on a reservation where it would not cost much to feed them. They went off around the reservation toward the east, Captain Thos. S. Dunn accompanying them. It was reported that a band of the Papago Indians were with them, but Dr. R. A. Wilbur, the agent of the Papagoes, who came into the post with the party, said that he had no knowledge of any Indians being present. As the Papagoes, for many years, have had a feud with the Apaches, and as they were the people whom the citizens of Tucson brought with them on their former visit and who had assisted so vigorously in the massacre, I was very much surprised, and expressed my great regret to Dr. Wilbur at seeing him accompanying another expedition from the same place of a character so similar to the former, and composed of a portion of the same people, in a foray against another Indian tribe. He informed me that he had no authority from Dr. Bendel, the superintendent of Indian affairs of Arizona, or from the Indian Office, to leave his agency. I called his attention to the fact that his presence with such a party was calculated to awaken distrust among the Apaches as to the honesty of our intentions in inviting them in, and I suggested to him the propriety of returning to his agency as soon as possible. The Doctor said that he had never received any copy of the laws of the Indian Bureau, and being uninformed of his duties, was not aware of there being any impropriety in his being here under such circumstances. He returned to his agency two days after the above interview. Before he left I requested him to use every means in his power to recover back from the Papagoes the 28 children stolen from the Apaches during the massacre. He promised to do so. (See Appendix A b, No. 19.)
Permit me to call your attention to the fact that these children have not yet been returned to their families, though it is now more than four months since they were stolen. As they were captured while their parents were being killed, though held as "prisoners of war" by the Army, the War Department, without other aid, has the power, it seems to me, to recover them if they are still in our country. It is reported that the majority of them have been carried over into Sonora by the Papagoes and sold
The chiefs first sent in their runners to see all was right, who, meeting with the Indian runners from the White Mountains, and hearing of the liberality and kindness of the Government, as displayed on our journey thither in the distribution of clothing, etc., returned to their chiefs and people, told their story, and brought them in.
Up to this time two hundred and forty-five Apaches have arrived,* all but ten (White Mountain Indians) being the same that were here before the massacre. As at Camp Apache, I distributed a suit of clothing, manta, (sheeting,) calico, needles and thread, to each Indian, man, woman, and child.
Lieutenant Whitman informed the chiefs that his orders from the Secretary of War were to feed them so long as they remained at peace upon the reservation. Commissioner Colyer told them Congress had appropriated the money, and the President had sent him here with the clothing, and instructions to the lieutenant to feed them. If they left the reservation, the limits of which he explained to them, they were liable to be killed.
ESCE-NELA, chief, and Cassay counsellor, claims to have always kept the peace. Ten years ago he was at Goodwin, and then they had a chief named Na-nine-chay, who governed all their tribes. He has met many officers, but that I was the first one to express regret at the Camp Grant massacre. (William Kness here remarked that Lieutenant Whitman had expressed regret, but this chief was not present.) He had no doubt but that God put it into the heart of the President to send me out here: He is satisfied that God is listening to this talk. He intends now to talk with reference to eternity, as though the world was to last forever. He believes that I will tell him the truth. He has no doubt but that I am sorry for the killed at the massacre. He is sorry for the Indians who have been taken away prisoners. He believes now that the centipedes and tarantulas (bad reptiles) among their enemies will no more hurt them. He believes now we will protect them; that we are now as father and mother to them. He heard of our coming; now he is glad to meet us. He said his people were living here peaceably: receiving rations three times a week, up to the time of the massacre. He believes neither the lieutenant not any of the officers knew of the people coming to attack them. It was about 4 o'clock in the morning when they were attacked; 128 killed, 29 taken prisoners. He and all the captains lost some of their families. He lost two wives, four children, three men, (one an old man,) and two of his nephews were taken away. He also lost fifty of his band. When the Tucson people attacked him, his best wife got separated from him and he could not find her. It was dark. If he could have found her he would have fought and died with her. There had been over five hundred of his people on the reservation at the time of the massacre. About thirty days after the attack about four hundred had returned, and were on the reservation when a lieutenant, and a party of troops under his command, fired into some of his people.
Commissioner Colyer asked : Does this country still please them, after what has oc-
Answer. The country still pleases them; they wish to remain here; this has always been their home, the home of their fathers, and they want Lieutenant Whitman as their agent, and these two men as their interpreters. They wish to go out and hunt, and if this campaign is stopped they will show that they can behave themselves. They have now had their talk, and they would like to have their share of the goods distributed to them now. When the other chiefs come in they can have theirs.
In the afternoon they came again. Esce-nela said he had been thinking over what I had told him, and now he had come to speak of it. Said he wanted to plant wheat on the San Pedro, and corn on the Aravapa.
Commissioner Colyer remarked that the chief had changed his mind since yesterday. He said nothing to that, but that he wished the man who was there should remain there. Mr. Austin owns the farm. Mr. Filmore occupies it.
ES-CIM-EN-ZEEN said: "He was glad to come in to his old home. He was the first to come in and make peace before and was happy in his home here. He got his rations every three days. He was not living far from here. He was making tiswin (a drink) in peace, when one morning he and his people were attacked, and many of them were killed. The next day after the massacre he came into this camp because he knew it was not the people here who had done it; it was the people from Tucson and Papagos. He then continued to live here in the valley for nearly thirty days, when his people were again attacked; this time it was by a squad of military men, and, although none of his people were killed, yet that made him mad, and he went on the war-path. He now admits he did wrong, but he was grieved and angry, and he could not help it. The one who first breaks the peace is the one who is to blame. He believes Commissioner Colyer has come to make peace, and is glad he has put tobacco before him to smoke. They have always known that they had a great father and a great mother. The commissioner had sent out for him, and probably thought he would see a great captain, but he only saw a very poor man, and not very much of a captain. If he had seen him about three months ago, he would have seen him a captain. Then he had a band of seventy men, but they had all been massacred; now he has got no people. Ever since he left this place he has been in the neighborhood; he knew he had friends here, but he was afraid to come back; but as soon as he heard the commissioner was here then he came in. He never had much to say, but this he could say, he likes this place. He has said all he ought to say, since he has no people anywhere to speak for. If it had not been for the massacre, there would have been a great many more people here now; but, after that massacre, who could have stood it? It was not possible for any man to have stood it. When he made peace with Lieutenant Whitman his heart was very big and happy. The people of Tucson and San Xavier must be crazy. They acted as though they had neither heads nor hearts."
SUNDAY MORNING, September 17, 1871.--The chiefs calling to see Commissioner Colyer, he told them "he was glad to see them. They must not expect everything to go right at first. It takes a long time to heal a wound. They have a good friend in the President, and he will do his best to deal justly and kindly with them."
Ex-cim-en-zeen replied that "he thanked God. They are happy now, but perhaps as soon as the commissioner has gone the soldiers will begin to kick them and point their rifles at them. That they don't like. They are contented now, but their young men are active, and being prevented from hunting they collect around the post, and get mixed up with the soldiers. Sometimes the soldiers kick them and throw stones at them; this makes trouble, as the young men feel bad."
Commissioner Colyer told them they would try to separate the post from the Indian agency. This they said was good, and it pleased them. They were glad that nothing had happened while he was here to break this good peace. They think the people of Tucson and San Xavier (the Papagos) must have a thirst for their blood. They seem to be always pursuing them. They think that as soon as the commissioner has gone these people will return again and try to massacre them. They want, as soon as he hears anything of the kind, that he will return and judge for himself. They believe these Tucson people write for the papers and tell their own story. The Apaches have no one to tell their story, so they want the commissioner to come again. They think it must have been God who gave him a good heart to come and see them, or he must have had a good father and mother to make him so kind. The commissioner told them "It was God;" they said, "It was." They said, "They believed the Papagos could not have any God, they had always been so cruel and had tried to persecute the Apaches as long as they could remember." It is just three days since they, the Apaches, have been here, and they have been happy. It seems to them that the arroyos (ravines) have been all smoothed over; that there are no more thorns or briers to prick them, nor snakes and reptiles to poison them. He said that Lieutenant Whitman knew
Commissioner Colyer told them that "they must not fight the Papagos or white people any more. He had already sent for the children, and when he got back to Washington he would ask the President to request the government of Mexico to return their children."
Es-cim-en-zeen said, "It seems to him now as if he had his children in his own hands. God had certainly put it in my heart. He was very happy."
Commissioner Colyer said that he would ride up the valley with them this morning to see the place of the massacre and hear their story.
Es-cim-en-zeen. A long time ago they took off a wife of his, and he believed she now is at Fort McDowell. "Na-zen-i-clee" is her name. She is living in the house of one of the captains of the soldiers.
Captain CHIQUITO: "He has nothing more to say than the other chiefs had said; he confirms all that they have said. He had heard that his father and mother had come and he asked to see him. The same God who rules the sun, he believes, had sent me here to see them. Ever since the other Indians had told him that I was here he wished to see me, and for that reason he had hurried in from the hills. It must have been God who had put it into both of our hearts to hurry to see each other. He thanks us for having sent him out food and clothing last night."
Two Pinal Indians came with Ex-cim-en-zeen. Says that yesterday he sent a boy named Un-pin-al-kay to the Pinals, and about noon he saw a smoke on his trail, and he don't know what it means unless he saw his people. He was to return in four days. He will bring in all the people he can. He thought that all the Pinals would come into this reservation as soon as they heard of the treatment he was receiving.
I visited the scene of the massacre on Sunday morning, September 17; some of the skulls of the Indians, with their temple-bones beaten in, lay exposed by the washing of the run and the feeding of the wolves. I overtook Es-cim-en-zeen, who had ridden before us, and found him wiping the tears from his eyes when he saw them.
By referring to accompanying papers; (Appendix A b, No. 2,) it will be seen that the account of this horrible massacre as given by Lieutenant Royal E. Whitman, Third Cavalry United States Army, the officer in charge of the camp at the time, is amply sustained by his brother officers and citizens then present. Some of these affidavits make the affair even more horrible than Lieutenant Whitman described it to be. Dr. C. B. Briesly, the post surgeon who was sent out to the bloody field to minister to the wounded on the day of the outrage, says: "On my arrival I found that I should have but little use for a wagon or medicines. The work had been too thoroughly done. The camp had been fired, and the dead bodies of some twenty-one women and children were lying scattered over the ground; those who had been wounded in the first instance had their brains beaten out with stones. Two of the best-looking of the squaws were lying in such a position, and from the appearance of the genital organs, and of their wounds, there can be no doubt that they were first ravished, and then shot dead. Nearly all of the dead were mutilated. One infant, of some ten months, was shot twice, and one leg hacked nearly off."
The Arizona Citizen, a professedly republican paper, published at Tucson, and the Arizona Miner, democratic paper from Prescott, have been excessive in their abuse of Lieutenant Whitman, Colonel Green, and all other officers of the Army who have shown the least sympathy for the Apaches, charging them with many crimes. The editors seem to fear the damaging effect produced on the public mind by the statements made officially by these Army officers of the general good conduct of the Apaches whenever they have been allowed an opportunity to display it, and of the horrible brutalities committed by the people of Arizona upon them at the Camp Grant massacre. Their statements that the Indians left that reservation and went on raiding parties against the citizens is denied by every officer and citizen at the post.
Oscar Hutton, an old pioneer, who has the reputation of having personally killed more Indians than any man in Arizona, testifies under oath (see Appendix A b, No. 3,) "not only that the statement of Lieutenant Whitman is correct, but that he had never seen Indians on a reservation or at peace about a military post under so good subjection, so well satisfied and happy, or more teachable and obedient, than were these. I was repeatedly requested to watch every indication of anything like treachery on their part, and I will give it as my deliberate judgment that no raiding party was ever
And Mr. F. L. Austin, the post trader, a gentleman well known and respected, not only "fully indorses Lieutenant Whitman's statement throughout," but says, "the Indians, while here, seemed to be under perfect control, and in all my business with them, in paying for some one hundred and fifty tons of hay for the contractor, never had any trouble or difficulty of any kind. They very readily learn any little customs of trade, etc. It is my opinion they would have remained and increased in numbers, had they not been attacked."
Mr. Miles L. Wood, the beef contractor for the military, testifies that he "was not absent one day, and personally issued every pound of beef drawn by them. They brought tickets to me, on which I issued. After completing the issue, I took the tickets to acting commissary of subsistence, and verified them by the official count of that day. I never had any trouble in my delivery. Lieutenant Whitman selected an Indian for policeman, gave him his orders, and good order was always preserved. I have lived in California, and have seen a great deal of Indians. Have heard a good deal of the Apaches, and was much surprised at the general intelligence and good behavior of those I saw at this post."
William Kness, the mail-carrier at the post, swears that though be has lived on the Pacific coast for twenty-six years, familiar with Indians, and prejudiced against the Apaches, yet "made it a point to study the character and habits of the Apache Indians at Camp Grant, before the massacre, and the result was that I was convinced that they were acting in good faith and earnestly desired peace. They were industrious, the women particularly so. Among all the Indians I have ever seen I have never met with as great a regard for virtue and chastity as I have found among these Apache women. In regard to the charge that after they were fed they went out on raiding parties, I have to say that I do not believe it. They were contented under our supervision, being in every three days for rations, and their faces familiar, and their number constantly increasing. I have read the statement of Oscar Hutton in regard to this point, and I have no doubt that he is correct, that no raiding parties were ever made by the Indians from this post. I also believe that if the massacre had not occurred we should have had from eight hundred to one thousand Apache Indians on this reservation before this time."
(See Appendix A b, No. 3.)
On the day of my arrival at Camp Grant, finding that no copy of the orders of the War Department dated Washington, July 18, 1871, and of July 31, 1871, had yet been received here from General Crook, I took the liberty of inclosing copies, and also a copy of the instructions of the Interior Department, to him for his information.
In our interviews with the chiefs of the Aravapa and Pinal Apaches at Camp Grant we found that, notwithstanding so many of their people had been killed at Camp Grant, they still clung to the Aravapa and San Pedro Valleys as their home, and would not listen to our proposal to remove them over to the White Mountains. Believing it better; for the sake of peace, that their wishes should be acceded to for the present, in consultation with the officers of the post, we concluded to fix the limits of their reservation as follows: Bounded north by the Gila River; west by a line ten miles from and parallel to the general course of the San Pedro River; south by a line at right angles to the western boundary, crossing the San Pedro ten miles from Camp Grant; east by a line at right angles to the southern boundary, touching the western base of Mount Trumbull, terminating at the Gila River, the northern boundary. (See Appendix No. 15.)
We carefully instructed the chiefs about these boundaries, impressing it upon their minds that they must not go beyond them that while within these limits they would be protected and fed; if they went beyond they would become objects of suspicion, and liable to be punished by both citizens and soldiers. They said they understood it.
Our first intention was to limit the boundaries of the reservation to a distance of ten miles square on each side of the post; but as the Gila river on the north did not much exceed that distance, and formed a good natural boundary which the Indians could easily remember, and the country on the east was a barren waste, yielding nothing that the white man cared for, but considerable food, such as mescal, mesquite beans, and cactus fruit, of which the Apaches were very fond, we concluded to extend the limits to the Gila river on the north, and the westerly base of Mount Trumbull on the east. The assurances given to us by the officers and citizens most familiar with the habits of the Indians before referred to, and found in Appendix A. b, No. 3, that they would not leave the reservations if properly fed and cared for, dismissed all doubts from our mind concerning this point.
Should the Government approve my action locating this reservation, there are some improvements made by several settlers, on the San Pedro, which should be appraised by Government officers and the owners paid for them. Several of the ranches are good adobe buildings, which will be of value for the use of the Indian department.
As the mountains are barren and the valleys infected with a malarial fever, the tract of country designated above is worth little or nothing to any one but the Indians, who are acclimated. And as it is absolutely necessary that a certain and well-defined tract shall be first set apart for them before we can expect them to leave the highway and other portions of the Territory, it seemed to me that justice, as well as wisdom suggested that we should select such places as they themselves chose and would reside upon—where we could protect and civilize them.
That the massacre at Camp Grant fairly illustrates the sentiment of a large portion of the people of Arizona and New Mexico on the Indian question, is painfully confirmed by the fact that nearly every newspaper here has, either justified or apologized for the act. That the President's "peace policy," so popular in the States, does not meet with much approval out here is unquestionably true; and any one who comes here to execute it must expect to meet with disapprobation. I have been met with a storm of abuse from these newspapers in their every issue; but, thank God, it does me no harm, and though I have received positive assurances that my life would be in danger if I visited certain localities, yet, as much of this is probably mere bluster, I should go there if my official duties required it.
Probably I should not have referred to these threats if the governor of the Territory, A. P. K. Stafford, esq., had not taken the precaution to issue a "proclamation" in the Arizona Citizen, calling upon the people to treat the commissioners "kindly," as though the governor supposed they were not likely to treat us kindly, unless he took some such extraordinary means as this to induce them to do so. This proclamation concludes with the following words: "If they (the commissioners) come among you entertaining erroneous opinions upon the Indian question and the condition of affairs in this Territory, then, by kindly treatment and fair, truthful representation, you will be enabled to convince them of their errors." A manifesto, so remarkable that we thought, in kindness to the governor, the less notice I took of it the better. (See Appendix A b, No. 20.)
There is evidently a wrong impression on the minds of the editors of these newspapers concerning the object of our visit to these Territories. They seem to think that we have come to "examine into the Indian affairs of the Territories" generally; whereas, our instructions from the President, through the Secretary of the Interior, are simply to "locate the nomadic tribes upon suitable reservations, bringing them under the control of the proper officers of the Indian Department, and supplying them with necessary subsistence, clothing, and whatever else may be needed."
September 24, 1871.
We left Camp Grant at 6 o'clock, evening, September 19, preferring a night ride to the hot sun across the desert of fifty miles, from the San Pedro to the Gila river. We arrived at Florence, a new and enterprising town, chiefly occupied by Americans, on the Gila, by noon the next day. Here I met a number of citizens, and a party of miners who had just returned from an unsuccessful tour of prospecting among the Pinal Mountains near by. They all wished me "God-speed," and said they "hoped before God the President would be successful in his efforts to bring in the Indians upon reservations." Nothing could have been kinder than their expressions of hearty goodwill toward the present administration. From this I infer that I may have been hasty in my conclusions contained at the close of my last letter, that the "peace policy" toward the Indians was unpopular in Arizona. I arrived at that impression from reading the newspapers of Tucson and Prescott. But I am told that these papers only reflect the opinions of the traders, army contractors, bar-rooms, and gambling-saloon proprietors of those two towns, who prosper during the war, but that the hardy frontiersman, the miner, poor laboring-men of the border, pray for peace, and I believe it.
Our ride down the dusty Valley of the Gila, from Florence to the Pima and Maricopa reservation, a distance of twenty-eight miles, in the hot sun, on horseback, the thermometer standing at 135° in the sun, 104° in the shade, was fearful. The men and animals were thoroughly used up.
The agency building is a good one, though too small for the work to be done. A school-house and room for the teacher should be built. Agent Stout and his young wife, the Rev. Mr. Cook, the teacher, and the physician were at home and attending to their duties. Mr. Stout complained of want of means, the remittances received from Superintendent Bendell being too small to meet the quarterly dues for salaries of the officers.
The chiefs were called together the next day, September 22, and we had a talk with them. Those present were Antonio Azul, the head chief; Swa-mas-kor-si, chief of Ki-ki-mi village; Ki-o-sot, 2d, chief of Ki-ki-mi village; Ki-co-chin-cane, chief of Shu-uk village; Miguel, chief of Staw-to-nik village: Candela, chief of Stu-ka-ma-soo-satick village; Se-per, chief of Pep-chalk village. I told them that by the President's directions, I had been sent to learn about their troubles; especially with regard to their quarrel with the settlers on Salt River, and the diversion of the supply of water from their acequias, and to inform them that, under your direction, I had set apart reservations for the Apaches. They, in common with the Papagos, have been in the habit of raiding on the Apaches, and I informed them that this must cease; that if the Apaches came down there and troubled them they were to defend themselves and punish the Apaches; but that they must not go up to the Apache country and make war upon them, unless they were requested to do so, officially, by some Army officer, which request would come through their agent. I told them they must also quit their raids on the white settlers on the Salt River, or else they would be punished. They had made several wholly unprovoked attacks on the settlers on the Salt River, destroying their crops of corn and tearing to pieces their houses and furniture; one poor man, now employed as farm-hand at the agency, having lost everything he possessed by them.
The chiefs replied that they had some bad young men in their tribe as we had among white men. That they go up to Salt River, notwithstanding their remonstrances against it; if they got into trouble or were killed they could not help it and no one would be sorry, but that their whole tribe ought not to suffer for it. They have always lived peaceably with the whites and they meant to continue to do so. They said they required more land than the present limits of their reservation allowed.
In their early days they lived more by hunting; deer abounded in that country before the white man came, and that with deer-meat and mescal they then got along very well, but that now they had to depend for subsistence almost wholly upon farming, and as they now had schools and were rapidly learning the ways of the white man, they needed more land and larger water-privileges.
They were always led to suppose that the white men wanted them to kill the Apaches, but that if they knew the boundaries of the Apache reservation they would keep off from it. I explained the boundaries of the Camp Grant reservation and told them that the Apaches complained bitterly of the Pimas and Papagos for their constant warfare upon them, and particularly of late of the Papagos for having assisted at the massacre at Camp Grant and carrying off their children into slavery, and again repeated that these feuds must cease. That the President would have peace. They promised to tell their young men; separated from us on very good terms, and, lingering about the agency for some time, rode off well mounted on brisk-looking ponies. Most of their tribe seemed quite prosperous and independent in their manner; indeed this last quality they carry so far it becomes rudeness. They have a very large idea of their own importance and prowess, and I was informed that on one occasion when Colonel Alexander, who had command at Camp McDowell, the nearest military post, threatened them with chastisement for some misconduct, they drew up five hundred fighting men of their tribe and dared him to come on. As Colonel Alexander had but one small company of cavalry, he had to forego the "chastisement."
I fear their young men will need a little disciplining before we shall have things run altogether smoothly on their reservation, and I sincerely hope Congress will make provision to purchase the additional land they really need for their support and comfort. The school under Rev. Mr. Cook is hopefully under way, and I think the Government is fortunate in securing his efficient and earnest services.
On my return to Washington I received the following letter from the agent, showing how much the Pimas and Maricopas are suffering from the want of the water of the Gila River, diverted by the white settlers, and how serious is their dissatisfaction :
" Gila River Reservation, Arizona Territory, October 19, 1871.
"DEAR SIR.: When you were here it was supposed from the amount of water in the bed of the river above here that there would be a sufficient quantity to reach the lower part of this reserve to enable our Indians to irrigate their fields as usual in preparing them for the reception of their crops. Though there was apparently plenty of water
"People who have lived on the Gila for years tell me there never was before such a thing as a dry river-bed on this reserve this time of the year. As a matter of course, our Indians are much dissatisfied and blame the settlers who are above us for taking away their water. On Sunday morning last, Chin-kum, a chief of one of the lower villages, and one of the best chiefs in the reserve, came to me and said that for many years he and his people had 'lived from what they planted,' but now they had no water; white men up the river had taken it from them, etc. After spending a few moments in telling me of his wrongs he made known the object of his visit, which was to obtain leave to take the warriors of his village, numbering one hundred and twenty-seven men, and by force of arms drive the whites from the river.
"I was not a little astonished at this manifestation, but quietly told Chinkum he must not go. I spent an hour in telling him of the fearful results which must surely follow such a step, and finally succeeded in inducing him not to go. But he told me this, that he would wait one month, and if the water did not come to them he would take his whole village, which numbers one hundred families, and move to the Salt River settlements, where, as he said, there is always water. As the settlers of that vicinity are and have been for years at enmity with these Indians, I assured him that trouble would certainly follow such a step as that, and urged him to remain on the reserve. He then asked me how he could stay here next year, with nothing to eat. I told him that the Great Father at Washington would not let him or his people starve. He went away silenced, but not satisfied, and I have not the slightest doubt that in a month from now he and his village will leave the reservation.
"Day before yesterday Ku-vit-ke-chin-e-kum, chief of Va Vak village, called and said he was going to Salt River with his tribe, as there is no water for his fields. I of course told him not to go, but am afraid it did no good. There are six or seven other villages on that part of the reserve, which is about the only part of it that can ever be reached by the water, the rest of the land being too high; and if the water does not come soon I think they will all leave.
"These Indians have always been well-disposed toward our Government, and for years they have served as a protection to them on this route from Texas to the Pacific coast. They claim the land lying above them on the Gila, (see report on Indian affairs for 1859, by Agent Sylvester Mowry, page 358,) but long since gave it up, because they were assured that when they needed it they should have it. It seems to me that time has come, and while these Indians are still friendly to the whites, it would, in my opinion, be a wise plan to give them a portion of the land they claim. A few thousand dollars would do this now, and may, perhaps, avoid an expenditure of ten-fold proportions, in case there should be trouble between them and the citizens here. The superintendent of Indian affairs is away on business at San Francisco just now, so I write this to you."Very respectfully, etc.,
"J. H. STOUT,
"United States Special Indian Agent.
We left the Pima agency on the evening of the 22d, preferring night-riding to the hot sun across the desert to McDowell, arriving at Desert Station, twenty-five miles, at 4 o'clock in the morning; and leaving there at 9 in the morning, reached Camp McDowell at 9 at night, meeting with a cordial and most hospitable reception from General N. A. M. Dudley and the other officers at the post.
My object in coming here is to open communications with the Tonto Apaches, and for this purpose General Dudley has this morning sent out runners with white flags, and kindled "a smoke." (See Appendix A b, No. 21.) I am informed that Del-shay, the able chief of the Tontos, has been in at McDowell several times during the past few years, and that on two occasions he has been dealt with very treacherously; at one time shot in the back, and at another time attempted to be poisoned by a post-doctor, whether he will answer my call remains to be seen. A party of Indians were reported last evening as having been seen by two straggling soldiers, making signs as if they wished to come in, a few miles below the post. As I had informed the Indians at Camp Grant that I was coming here, and they had sent runners up this way, the officers here think that the Indians know it and wish to come in.
4 p.m.--The Indians have kindled their answering fires upon the top of the Sierra Ancha—a high mountain twenty miles from here—northward, near old Fort Reno. They are evidently in earnest, as the smoke at times is dense, extending at intervals
"The party with the flag of truce, sent out at my request, by General Dudley, to try to open communications with the Tonto Apaches, returned this afternoon, having been only partially successful, as you will see by the report inclosed, (marked A b, No. 21) from Major Curtis. He had seen several Indians on the hills, exchanged friendly signals with them, and after spending a day immediately surrounded by them, had separated from them without any indications of ill-will, or molestation. It is very difficult to obtain their confidence so soon after they have been pursued by the soldiers, and as I am now dealing with another band of Apaches, different in their habits, and living quite apart from the Pinals, Coyoteros, Aravapa, and the other hands with whom I so recently have held friendly intercourse. I am not in the least discouraged at Major Curtis not having brought in any of the tribe. As you will see by his report he is quite sanguine that they will come in soon.
"In the event that they should come in I have provided that General Dudley, commandant of McDowell, should feed, protect, and otherwise care for them at this post, until such time as he may have a sufficient number, when he can remove them to Camp Grant. Meanwhile, in order that they may be thus looked after I was compelled to declare this military reservation, five miles square, a temporary admit reservation, which I did with the advice of the military officers at this place. (See Appendix A b, No. 22.) As soon as we can see how many of them come in, and learn their wishes as to a locality for their home, I have arranged with General Dudley that he should communicate with the Department, and it can order their removal. For the present, I am only anxious to keep them in from the "war-path," and to get them to look upon the Government as their friend. Other things will follow.
"That there may be no delay in this, and that every effort may be made to get them in, I requested Captain Thomas McGregor, who commands a detachment of troops in the field, under marching orders (temporarily suspended) from General Crook, to mend out another flag of truce in another direction to the Tont. country. (See Appendix A b, No. 23.)
"Although copies of your instructions of July 21, and order of War Department July 18 and 31, written at the suggestion of the President, were forwarded to General Crook from Camp Apache, September 7, and have been received there, and an express messenger arrived here from there yesterday, yet no copies were forwarded to the officers here. They are much troubled about it and have written to the general. Fortunately it has made no difference in my progress, as I have gone right on with the work, and the officers here as well as at Camp Grant and Apache have not hesitated to carry out those orders. I mention it only that you may fully comprehend the situation. Probably General Crook's movements have disarranged his mail.
"Altogether, I feel greatly encouraged and am confident that in Arizona, and among the Apaches, the President's policy of peace will be as successful as it has been in all other portions of the Indian country.
"November 2, 1871.
"SIR: As you will remember, just before you left McDowell I sent Major Curtis out with a white flag to old Fort Reno; he was at the time unsuccessful in his attempt to open communication with them notwithstanding he saw several Indians in the bluffs and hills near him, none of whom showed any hostile demonstrations. He left his flag in the old ruin of a chimney of the stockade, returning to McDowell. This expedition had its good results, as events since have proved. The Tontos saw the soldiers with an emblem of peace. It was a strange sight. Days passed and no Apaches visited the post; signal fires were constantly kept burning during the night at the garrison for some time. At last a party of four came in. I received them warmly, took them to my quarters, and had a long talk with the principal man among them, 'One-Eyed Riley.' He had been twice in at McDowell two or three years since, and was recognized by Lieutenant Grant, who had I think met him at Reno. He said the Tontos wanted
"The Indian ration was reduced to one pound of beef and one pound of flour, or rather corn, upon which an Indian cannot subsist, and of course will not be content with it, as they have neither roots, game, or fruit here to eke out the ration. I do not believe it requisite to keep them near McDowell. All that I have talked with express a desire to be allowed a reservation near Reno or Sunflower Valley; these points are away from the Pimas, from settlements, and need have only one company of soldiers near them with their agent. There is not a particle of doubt in my mind, all the stories to the contrary, that they at this moment are anxious for a peace, and a lasting one. No man can talk with them an hour without being convinced of this fact.
"Captain McNetterville, who has been out by direction of Major Curtis, and had a talk with Del-shay, on his return seemed to have been most favorably impressed with their sincerity; before, I believe, he never had any confidence in them, and was in favor of exterminating them if possible. Dr. Howard, the medical officer who accompanied Captain McNetterville, expressed great surprise at the intelligence and earnestness shown by their talk and manner.
"It must not be expected that a peace made with these various bands, scattered all over a great, wild territory like Arizona, New Mexico, and Sonora, will be perfect for a long time. Many bad Indians will refuse to come in. These will have to be hunted down; and if the good ones are now cared for, properly fed, reasonably clothed, and kindly treated, they can easily be induced, in my opinion, to help catch this class of renegades and bring them to proper punishment. It is going to take a good deal of patience, careful judgment, forbearance and humane treatment; but I have the strong-set belief it can be accomplished. If we fight them one or two years, it has to be done in the end ; for it is not supposed the Government is going to keep up a perpetual war on them.
"If I remain in the Territory, I only ask that I may be stationed at a post overlooking a reservation; for I know a race of beings possessing the intelligence so prominently exhibited by the Apaches can be taught to appreciate the advantages of living at peace with the whites, whom they frankly recognize as every way superior to them-
N. A. M. DUDLEY,
"Brevet Colonel, United States Army.
November 3, 1871.
SIR: Since your departure I have been steadily engaged in trying to open communication with the Tontos and Apache Mohaves. They sent in a messenger about October 14, and by the 20th I had in over eighty of them, from the two different bands above stated. Es-cal-la-tay, the head of the Four Peak Indians, came with his band, and the Apache Mohaves with their own chief I had only a short talk with them at the time, they being willing to wait until others could get in, so as to have a grand council and settle the whole matter. Del-Shay, with his Indians, had not yet arrived. At this juncture of affairs, and after they had been camped near me for three days, they suddenly disappeared about midnight, and went back to their mountain homes.
I found upon inquiry that some rascally Mexicans had been talking to them, and, as near as I could learn, had frightened them out by telling them that the Pimas were coming after them. I cannot prove this, but I believe it. That these Indians have a great dread of the Pimas is well known. I have written the Indian agent at Sacaton, Mr. J.H. Stout, telling him that he must keep his Pimas and Maricopas away from this post. These Mexicans are many of them guides, etc., and are well aware of the fact that if we make peace their occupation will be gone.
Two days after these Indians left I sent Captain Netterville, Twenty-first infantry, to Sunflower Valley, thirty miles from here, to renew communications and find out what was the matter. Inclosed please see his order, private instructions, and copy of report.
They do not wish to come here and stay for two or three very strong reasons 1. They are afraid of the Pimas and Maricopas, and the latter can readily reach this place. 2. They are too far from their mountains to gather fruit or mescal or to hunt, and without some such aid they cannot subsist on a pound of beef and one of flour. 3 They have a natural indisposition to leave a country where they have always been accustomed to live. 4. They say that they can plant and get plenty of water on Tonto Creek, (near Reno.) It is, however, difficult to supply Camp Reno, as the road is very bad. Troops were stationed there at one time, but the post was broken up on this account.
It seems to me that there ought to be a trusty agent constantly on the spot here to attend to all these things. I have but $400 that I can expend for them, which is but a drop in the bucket, when they all need blankets and clothing. All that I can do is to give them a little manta, calico, and tobacco. Then, again, I am peculiarly situated. If I take the responsibility of declaring a temporary reservation my action may be disapproved by the department commander, or I may not be able to get the means of supplying it. Troops should be with them wherever they may be, and I have not the power to put them there. One thing seems to me certain, that they will never be contented near this post. I believe that it is better to so shape things as not to crowd them. The whole country around Reno, Tonto Creek, and Greenback Creek is unsettled by the whites, and they never go there. It seems to me that Tonto Valley is the place for them. It can be supplied with flour by pack-trains, and beef can be driven there.
Tonto and Greenback Valleys (the latter about twenty miles southeast of Reno) are said by those who have been there to be the best adapted places for this purpose in this whole Territory. Greenback Valley is small, but very pretty, and has plenty of timber and grass and fine bottom-land for cultivation with but little irrigation. The road from here to Reno, as I said before, is very bad, but Reno can be supplied, as stated, by pack-trains for the present.
I hope that you will take some action in this matter without delay. In the mean time I shall try and collect these Indians here or at Sunflower, and let them, if there, send for their rations. It is impossible for me to send out there, for I have not the means of so doing. You can see that I am so situated that I cannot promise them anything, and the whole thing may fall through for this reason. I think that they mean to make a lasting treaty of peace if they can be made to feel that they are not being deceived.
I will advise you further when the grand council is held.I am, sir, very respectfully,
Captain Third Cavalry, Commanding Post, and ex-officio Indian Agent.
November 2, 1871.
SIR: I have the honor to report that, in compliance with Special Orders No. 170, dated Headquarters Camp McDowell, Arizona Territory, October 25, 1871, I left this post and proceeded to Sunflower Valley, and complied as near as possible with special instructions given me by the post commander. I arrived at Sunflower Valley at 5.30 p.m. on the 27th of October, and went into camp at the stockade. On the morning of the 28th I commenced building fires and kept them burning during the day as signals. On the morning of the 29th my signals were answered from a hill near camp. At 10 o'clock for Indians came into camp. I gave them something to eat and sent them out at once to tell their chief, Del-Shay, to come in; that I wanted to have a talk with him. In the evening two more Indians came in from another direction, who said they belonged to Shelter-Pau’s band. I also sent them out with the same instructions. On the 30th four Indians and two squaws came into camp with a message to me from Del-Shay and Shelter-Pau that they would come and see me the next day. I gave these Indians something to eat, and sent them out of camp to come in again when their chiefs came. On the 31st, about 12 o'clock, Shelter-Pau and forty warriors arrived. In the afternoon of the sane day Del-Shay, with twenty of his warriors and four or five squaws, with children, arrived. I had a talk with both chiefs that afternoon, and told them my mission; they appeared to be well pleased with what I said to them, and would reply to me the next morning. They were in a very destitute condition, being nearly naked and apparently suffering very much from the cold. They both appeared to be very anxious for peace, and expressed a desire to live happily with all mankind. I gave each band a sack of flour and issued them some beef. The next morning, November 1, both chiefs came into camp, and desired to have a big talk. The following is what Del-Shay said: "I don't want to run over the mountains any more; I want to make a big treaty; I will live with the soldiers if they will come to Sunflower Valley or Camp Carroll, if Government will establish a camp there; I will make a peace that will last; I will keep my word until the stones melt; I cannot go to Camp McDowell, because I have no horses and wagons to move my women and children, but at Camp Carroll I can live near the mountain and gather the fruit and get the game that is there. If the big captain at Camp McDowell does not put a post where I say; I can do nothing more, for God made the white man and God made the Apache, and the Apache has just as much right to the country as the white man. I want to make a treaty that will last, so that both can travel over the country and have no trouble; as soon as a treaty is made I want a piece of paper so that I can travel over the country as a white man. I will put a rock down to show that when it melts the treaty is to be broken. I am not afraid of the white man or the Mexican, but I am afraid of the Pimas and Maricopas, who steal into my camps at night and kill my women and children with clubs; If I make a treaty I expect corn and wheat, pumpkin and melon seed, and I will plant near old Camp Reno. I want the big captain to come and see me; see how I get along; and will do whatever he wants me to do. If I make a treaty I expect the commanding officer will come and see me whenever I send for him, and I will do the same whenever he sends for me. If a treaty is made and the commanding officer does not keep his promises with me I will put his word in a hole and cover it up with dirt. I promise that when a treaty is made the white man or soldiers can turn out all their horses and mules without any one to look after them, and if any are stolen by the Apaches I will cut my throat. I want to make a big treaty, and if the Americans break the treaty I do not want any more trouble; the white man can take one road and I can take the other. I will send some men with you to the big captain at Camp McDowell, and when they return I want him to put on a piece of paper what he promises, so that I can keep it. Tell him that I am sick now, but will go to see him in twelve days if I have to crawl on my hands and knees to get to him. Tell him that I will bring in all the wild Apaches that I can, and if any will not come I will tell the captain who they are and where they live. I have got nothing more to say."
I then asked Shelter-Pau what he desired to say: He said "he had nothing more to say than Del Shay; he wanted the same as Del-Shay did, and that he would come into the post the same time as he did." I then gave each chief one beef and left the camp at Sunflower Valley at 10 o'clock, accompanied by sixteen Indians belonging to the two bands, and arrived at this post this a.m. at 7 o’clock, having marched a distance or sixty miles.
I have to report the loss of one mule, which was kicked by a horse and so badly disabled that he had to be shot, after which the Indians eat him.I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant.
W. McC. NETTERVILLE,
Captain Twenty-first Infantry,
First Lieutenant A. D. KING, U. S. A.,
Post Adjutant, McDowell.
November 17, 1871.
DEAR SIR: I thought you might be glad to hear how your policy was working at this point. Major Curtis has done all in his power, and consulted my views in nearly all his actions. It has been slow work, however, the responsibility having to be taken for everything done.
Captain McGregor's command has never sent out the white flag you arranged for; I believe he intended to, but for some reason unknown to me he did not do it. The company of Mexicans enlisted as soldiers are still here, as worthless a set and as idle as I want to see.
Major Curtis and myself compared notes night before last, and we counted up about two hundred Indians in all, of who have come into camp since you left, representing the Apache Mohave, Four Peak, Del-Shay, and Tonto Apaches. Del-Shay, with full eighty males, a few boys included, but no women, came into garrison and was warmly received by Major Curtis. He fed them the scanty allowance prescribed, clothed up Del-Shay and three other principal men, and gave the four good blankets. The first two days they appeared quite happy and pleased. On the afternoon of the 14th the major had a talk with them. All expressed a desire for peace. Del Shay said he was sick; his breast, where he was shot by an infamous surgeon, most foully, gave him great pain. He appeared earnest for peace; said they were poor, starving, but that his people could not come into McDowell and live on the half ration allowed by the Government; that there was no mescal, no game, no chance to obtain anything beyond the pound of corn and pound of beef. His people would not he satisfied; the soldiers had no right to expect an Indian to live on less than a white man. Some of the points put by Del-Shay were discussed at length. He seemed to comprehend the situation. It was explained to him that no officer here was authorized to locate them on a reservation in their own country; that there was no authority to increase his ration or give blankets to his people. (Your order for blankets had not come to hand approved, at the meeting of this council.) He appeared somewhat dissatisfied, but did not express it in words. Up to the breaking up of the talk he asserted his wishes for peace, and a good long one.
He wanted to go out for a few days; said he would come in again in four or five days. Major Curtis told him that he would send off a written treaty for the approval of the great chief at Washington, the President. In it he would recommend that a large tract of country near Reno, including Tonto Bottom and Sunflower Valley, be reserved for their sole occupation; that he would try and get an agent sent among them for the purpose of instructing them how to cultivate the soil and use the implements which the Government would undoubtedly furnish them; that the Government would in all probability locate a company of soldiers near them to protect them from the Pimas and whites who might attempt to hunt or locate on their grounds. These points they seemed to be pleased with; but they could not live upon what they were getting now.
The council for the day was ended. They sent their parties up to the wood-yard at dark, as they had been doing the two nights previous, for their night's supply of fuel, built their fires, and commenced cooking their beef. About 7 p.m. they suddenly left in a body, Del-Shay, the Mohaves, and all. That they were frightened off by some parties or person no doubt can exist, inasmuch as they left their meat cooking on the fire; besides, they left several of their bows and quivers filled with arrows hanging on the trees where they were encamped.*
At the council in the afternoon, Del-Shay stated that he would leave some of his men back in garrison till he returned. What should have so suddenly changed his mind none of us are at all able to tell. The Mexican soldiers and citizen packers had free access to their camp, as well as soldiers. No insult was offered or injury done them that we know of.
I feel very much disappointed at this result; everything promised so fair. I heard Del-shay say two or three times that all his people would come in soon; that the Four Peak Apache Mohaves were all in Sunflower Valley talking about coming in; that he thought they would come to the post with all their families in the course of ten days, when they heard what the soldiers had to say.
They have more warriors than I gave them credit for; nearly all that came in with Del-shay were able-bodied men, only one or two very old men in the party.
I believe an influence was brought to bear upon him by outsiders which frightened him off. His former treatment made him suspicious and fearful of some treachery, notwithstanding he was assured that if no understanding was come to, he should be allowed to go unmolested back to his family, providing no depredations were committed by his band. Not a thing was taken by one of them that I have heard of, and there were hundreds of soldiers' shirts hanging on the clothes-lines of the laundresses
The robbery of the mail-stage, and the killing of five citizens, a week ago, by an unknown party, near Wickenburgh, of course is laid to the Indians. At first even the Prescott papers partially admitted that it was a part of Mexican bandits from Sonora. Indians, when they attack a stage, are not apt to leave the horses, blankets, and curtains of the coach behind; in this case they did. I do not believe there was an Apache near the scene of the murder. All honest men have the same opinion, if they dared to express it.Yours, truly, etc.,
N. A. M. DUDLEY,
Brevet Colonel United States Army.
We arrived at Camp Verde on the evening of September 30. General Grover and the officers under his command at the post received us kindly. Early in the morning after our arrival, at my request the general sent out an Indian interpreter to inform the Apache Mohaves of our arrival, and to request them to meet us at the Springs, twenty-five miles up the valley of the Verde, on the following day at noon. Arrangements were made to have one thousand pounds of corn, three beef-cattle, and a good supply of clothing forwarded to the Spring, and at daybreak October 2 we were up and ready for the journey. General Grover, a lieutenant, (former commandant of the post,) Mr. Beal, a citizen, Mr. Ward the interpreter, and an escort of five cavalry accompanied us. The beef-cattle were driven ahead, and the corn and clothing carried on twelve pack-mules. We arrived at the Spring about noon. General Grover selected for our camp a clear hill-top a short distance above the Spring overlooking the valley. There were no Indians to be seen, though there was smoke burning up a near ravine. The Indian interpreter informed us that he had been to several of their villages, and found many were sick from want of food, but that all who were able had promised to come. General Grover, thinking that the presence of several white men who, returning from a deer hunt, had followed us, might be one of the causes of the absence of the Indians, suggested that they should be requested to leave us. I agreed with him, and the hunters went down the valley. Soon after their departure, Soulay, the head chief, and five Apache Mohaves arrived. Soulay was so emaciated from sickness and hunger that the general hardly recognized him. He was so weak he lay down on the ground, his head resting under the shade of a sage-brush. There were no trees near. The general thinking that he was suffering from an attack of intermittent fever, I prepared a mixture of quinine and whisky and gave it to him, but he soon asked for food, which we gave him. After an hour on two he recovered his strength and we had a talk. He pointed to the valley of the Verde below, where a white man had erected a cabin the year before, and said, "Where that house stands I have always planted corn; I went there this spring to plant corn, and the white man told me to go away or he would shoot me; so I could not plant corn there any more. Many white men hunted for does over his mountains, like the three men who had just gone down the valley; that if they met any Indians they shot them, and that they killed all the game or frightened them so much the Indians could not get near them with their bows and arrows, and as the white people would not let them have any ammunition, they could not kill the deer. There was some mesquite beans, mescal, and cactus figs on the mountains, but they could not live on that in the winter, and they did not see what was left for them but to die. If they went to the post to get some food they could not get any, and the general scolded them about their young men stealing and drove them off. The chiefs would not get anything for their people to eat; they were gradually losing their influence over their young men, who, finding themselves starving, would occasionally go on the roads and farms and steal stock to eat; he knew it was wrong, but how could he stop it, or blame them, when they were all dying for food?" At my request the Indians kindled more fire, and sent out three more runners to bring the Indians in. During the afternoon four parties of three or four each arrived; they were hungry and nearly naked, and confirmed the interpreter's story that numbers of the Indians in the villages from which they came were too sick to come in. We gave them food and clothing. During the night several fires answering our signals were seen on the mount-
Since my return to Washington I have received the following letter from Rev. David White, post chaplain, reporting the full success in the coming in of over five hundred Apache Mohaves at Camp Verde Reservation :
"November 22, 1871.
"DEAR SIR: I write congratulating you on the success of your mission to the Indians of this Territory. Since you left, five hundred and eighty Apache Mohaves have been in and drawn rations. It affords me pleasure to say that the food given out by Captain Hawley (now in command) is done in good faith. The Indians appear well pleased. There is but little danger in traveling anywhere on account of Indians. I have made the trip alone from here to Prescott.* Others have done the same."Respectfully, your obedient servant,
"Chaplain United States Army.
October 6, 1871.
We arrived here on the evening of the 4th, and were received quite cordially by General Crook, who insisted upon my making his quarters my home. Indeed, through-out my journey in Arizona and New Mexico, I have been received with the utmost kindness by the officers of the Army, as I have before reported.
The general and I differed somewhat in opinion as to the best policy to be pursued toward the Apaches, but as these differences were honestly entertained and kindly expressed, it did not lessen the cordiality of our intercourse; and as he desired me to frankly express my opinion if there was anything in his official action which I questioned, and as he had been pleased to do the same with me, much to my satisfaction I told him I could not help expressing my regrets that he should have felt it to be his duty to censure Major Wm. Nelson for his manly defense of the Indians upon the reservation at Camp Grant. (See Appendix A b, No. —.)
The following day, with the advice of General Crook and that of Captain Frederick Van Vliet, who commands at Camp Hualapai, we arranged that the Hualapais Indians, who congregate around Beal Springs, a military post, about two hundred miles to the northwest of Prescott, should be fed at that post, and a temporary reservation be declared one mile around the camp until a more permanent reservation could be selected. (See Appendix A b, No. 24.) The recent discovery of silver mines, and the uncertainty of their precise location, in the country inhabited by the Hualapais Indians, made it impracticable for us to do any more than the above for the present.
General Crook also thought it not advisable to attempt to move the Apache Mohaves who range through the country in the neighborhood of Date Creek, this winter, to the reservation at Camp Verde, but that they should be fed at Camp Date Creek until the spring, where they may consent to move. With his advice, we therefore decided to name that post, and for one mile around it, a temporary reservation, and General Crook issued the necessary orders accordingly.
The gentlemen assured me that they would protect me with their rifles and revolvers; but as my official duties were wholly with the Indians, and the officers of the Government having them in charge, and I was unable to see sufficient reasons for addressing a public meeting in which I should have to be protected with rifles and revolvers, I respectfully declined. Mr. Merriam gave me a beautiful specimen of gold quartz, and I thought we had parted pretty good friends, but three days after he published an editorial containing several gross calumnies, and abusing me worse than ever.-V. C.
In passing through Kirkland Valley near Date Creek, the stage stopped at a farmer's house and inn toward evening, where we found the family greatly excited over the murder of an Indian. The landlord declined to give me the details of the affair, and I vainly endeavored to obtain them from a corporal and two soldiers who were standing there; they having been sent for from Camp Date Creek to protect the family. The landlord asked for seats in the stage for his wife and daughter to go to Wickenberg, saying he feared an attack upon his house that night by Apache Mohave Indians, and wished to have his family in a place of safety. As the Apache Mohaves had been for the last two years at peace, and were not included among those against whom General Crook was conducting his campaign, and, as I have reported before, are estimated to number over two thousand people, the affair was important. The ladies, who were refined and intelligent persons, were taken in the coach, and from them I learned the following particulars :
"The Indian was standing in the front door of the tavern, when three white men came up the road on horseback, and demanded a Henry rifle which the Indian held in his hand. ' No,' was the reply, ‘this is my gun—my property.' 'Jump off and take it,' says one to another; upon which one of the riders dismounted, and reached for the rifle. The Indian stepped back. The white man sprang forward and seized the rifle, and with the, butt end knocked the Indian down in the door of the tavern. We screamed, and begged the party not to murder an Indian in the house, or his tribe would retaliate by murdering the inmates: The Indian was dragged out and killed and buried there in the yard, when the party mounted and rode off with his rifle. The day following, a straggling party of the same tribe of Indians—the Apache Mohaves--were coming up the road, soliciting work from the farmers along the route, as is their custom. When within a mile of the tavern where the Indian was killed, three farmers, who supposed they were coming to attack our house fired into the Indians—about twenty in number—and wounded or killed several of them, who were carried off by their associates in their rapid retreat."
The killing of the first Indian took place while the landlord was absent, or he said he would have prevented it. He had thought it prudent to send his family by stage to Wickenberg, but, with the aid of the soldiers and some neighbors, he intended remaining, and would endeavor to pacify the Indians.
On our arrival at Camp Date Creek, near midnight, I awoke Captain O'Beirne, the commander, and delivered the orders of General Crook, arranging for the feeding of the Apache Mohaves at his post. I informed him of the above facts in the hope that he would investigate the affair.
At Colling's Ranche Way Station on the desert, east of Ehrenberg, I found nearly two hundred and fifty Apache Mohave Indians living in temporary wicker-ups, and hanging around begging at the ranche. I called the head men together and inquired why they did not go to the agency on the Colorado, or at Date Creek, and what were their means of obtaining a living. They said that at the Colorado Agency, Iraytabe, the chief, discouraged their coming, drove them off, and threatened them with punishment if they returned. At Date Creek they could get nothing to eat, and "it only made the officers angry to see them. Mr. Callings fed them occasionally, but they were half starving and naked." I distributed some wheat among them and gave them a letter to Colonel O'Beirne at Camp Date Creek, requesting him to look into their condition, and if they
At Ehrenberg I met Dr. J. A. Tonner, agent for the Mohave Apaches, on the Colorado River, who reported everything peaceable and progressing hopefully at his agency. He said he would take care of the Indians at Collings ranch, and remonstrate with Iraytabe at his inhospitality. He earnestly asks for help in the establishing of schools, and reported the children eager to learn.
Arriving at Los Angeles on the 13th of October, I regretted that my time would not allow me the pleasure of calling upon General Stoneman, at Wilmington, as his position as former commander of the department of Arizona would enable him to give me much information on Indian affairs. I addressed him a note, however, and on my arrival at San Francisco, October 19, I received a very kind reply from the general, accompanied with a copy of his final report on Arizona.
General Schofield was glad to see me. The many exaggerated reports in the newspapers of the "cross-purposes between General Crook and the peace commissioner," had made him desirous to learn the truth. When he ascertained that instead of placing the Indians on the reservation which I selected, "under the care of the proper officers of the Indian Department," as I had been directed to do in my instructions from the Secretary of the Interior, I had availed myself of the clause which allowed me "full power to use my best discretion," and I had left the whole business under the supervision of General Crook and the officers of the Army, I believe he was satisfied that the "cross-purposes" only existed in the imagination of a few worthy people in Arizona, and those whom they have misled. (Appendix A b, No. 25.)
I arrived in Washington on October 27, and made my verbal report to the President in the presence of the Secretary of the Interior and Secretary of War, on the 6th of November. By direction of the President, on the following day I made a brief report, in writing, to the Hon. Secretary of the Interior, giving a description of the reservations selected in New Mexico and Arizona, (see Appendix A b, No. 15,) which was inclosed to the President by the Secretary of the Interior, with an indorsement recommending that "in pursuance of the understanding arrived at in our conversation with the Secretary of War on the 6th instant, that the President issue an order authorizing said tracts of country described in Mr. Colyer's letter to be regarded as reservations for the settlement of the Indians until it is otherwise ordered. I have the honor also to suggest that proper officers of the War Department be directed to notify the various bands of roving Apaches that they are required to locate upon the reservations immediately, and that upon so doing they will be fully protected and provided for by the Government so long as they remain on said reservations, and preserve peaceable relations with the Government, each other, and the white people, and that unless they comply with the request they will not be thus provided for and protected." (See Appendix A b, No. 26.)
These recommendations were approved by the President, transmitted to the Secretary of War, and, under General Sherman's, orders, were directed to be carried into execution by Lieutenant General Sheridan and Major General Schofield, commanding the division of the Missouri and Pacific. (See Appendix A b, No. 27.)
Late advices from the agents and Army officers in charge of the Apache Indians reservations established in New Mexico and Arizona, under the President's order, state that the roving Apaches have come in in large numbers. There are now reported to be at Cañada Alamosa nineteen hundred; Camp Apache, Arizona Territory, thirteen hundred; Camp Grant, Arizona Territory, nine hundred; Camp Verde, Arizona Territory, five hundred; Camp McDowell, Arizona Territory, one hundred—total four thousand seven hundred.
No reports have been received at this office from the feeding stations temporarily established until the reservations can be selected, at Camp Hualapas and Camp Date Creek, where there are probably one thousand more. Without counting these there are more than one-half of all the roving Apaches of these Territories now at peace and within call, reaping the benefit of the "peace policy."
Of the complaints made by the officials and editors of Arizona of my want of courtesy in not accepting their generous hospitalities as well as of the threats so freely made to "mob," "lynch me," "hang me in effigy," "stone me to death" as a "thief," "robber," "murderer," "red-handed assassin," etc., and abuse generally of the press of Arizona and elsewhere I have taken little notice, as the business upon which I was sent to Arizona and New Mexico was successfully accomplished, has received the approbation of the administration and I trust to time and the good results which I believe will follow as my vindication.
Report of the massacre of friendly Apache Indians at Camp Grant, Arizona Territory, April 30, 1871, by white citizens of Tucson, Mexicans, and Papago Indians, while the Indians were prisoners of war under the American flag.
DEAR COLONEL: Thanks for your kind letter of last week. If I could see you and have a long talk, and answer all your questions, I could come nearer giving you a clear idea of the history of the Indians at this post than by any written account. Having had them constantly under my observation for nearly three months, and the care of and for them constantly on my mind, certain things have become no much a matter of certainty to me that I am liable to forget the amount of evidence necessary to convince even the most unprejudiced mind that has not been brought in contact with them. I will, however, try and give you a connected account, and if it proves not sufficiently full in detail, you may be sure all its positive statements will be sustained by the testimony of all competent judges who have been at this post and cognizant of the facts. Some time in February a party of five old women came in under a flag of truce, with a letter from Colonel Greene, saying they were in search of a boy, the son of one of the number, taken prisoner near Salt River some months before. This boy bad been well cared for, and had become attached to his new mode of life, and did not wish to return. The party were kindly treated, rationed while here, and after two days went away, asking permission to return again. They came in about eight days, I think, with a still larger number, with some articles for sale to purchase manta, as they were nearly naked. Before going away they said a young chief would like to come in with a party and have a talk. This I encouraged, and in a few days he came with about twenty-five of his band. He stated in brief that he was chief of a band of about 150 of what was originally the Aravapa Apaches; that he wanted peace; that he and his people had no home, and could make none, as they were at all times apprehensive of the approach of cavalry. I told him that he should go to the White Mountains. He said, "That is not our country, neither are they our people. We are at peace with them, but never have mixed with them. Our fathers and their fathers before them have lived in these mountain and have raised corn in this valley. We are taught to make mescal our principal article of food, and in summer and winter here we have a never-failing supply. At the White Mountains there is none, and without it now we get sick. Some of our people have been in at Goodwin, and for a short time at the White Mountains, but they are not contented, and they all say, 'Let us go to the Aravapa and make a final peace and never break it.'" I told him I had no authority to make any treaty with him or to promise him that he could be allowed a permanent home here, but that he could bring in his band and I would feed them, and report his wishes to the department commander. He went out and returned about the 1st of March with his whole band. In the mean time runners (supplied) had been in from two other small bands, asking the same privileges, and giving the same reasons. I made the same reply to all, and by about the 5th of March I had over three hundred here. I wrote a detailed account of the whole matter, and sent it by express to Sacaton, to department headquarters, asking for instructions, having only the general policy of the Government in such cases for my guidance. After waiting more than six weeks my letter was returned to me without comment, except calling my attention to the fact that it was not briefed properly. At first I put them in camp about half a mile from the post, and counted them, and issued them rations every second day. The number steadily increased until it reached the number of five hundred and ten. Knowing as I did that the responsibility of the whole movement rested with me, and that in case of any loss to the Government coming of it I should be the sufferer, I kept them continually under observation, until I not only came to know the faces of all the men, but also the women and children. They were nearly naked, and needed everything in the way of clothing. I stopped the Indians from bringing hay, that I might buy from them. I arranged a system of tickets with which to pay them and to encourage them; and to be sure they were properly treated, I personally attended to all the weighing. I also made inquiries as to the kind of goods sold them and prices. This proved a perfect success; not only the women and children engaged in the work, but many of the men. The amount furnished by them in about two months was nearly 300,000 pounds.
During this time many small parties had been out with passes for a certain number of days to burn mescal. These parties were always
mostly women, and I made myself sure by noting the size of the party, and from the amount of mescal brought in, that no treachery was intended. From the first I was determined to know not only all they did, but their hopes and intentions. For this purpose I spent hours each day with them in explaining to them the relations they should sustain to the Government, and their prospects for the future in case of either obedience or disobedience. I got from them in return much of their habits of thought and rules of action. I made it a point to
Such was the condition of things up to the morning of the 30th of April, They had so won on me, that from my first idea of treating them justly and honestly as an officer of the Army, I had come to feel a strong personal interest in helping to show them the way to a higher civilization. I had come to feel respect for men who, ignorant and naked, were still ashamed to lie or steal, and for women who would work cheerfully like slaves to clothe themselves and children, but, untaught, held their virtue above price. Aware of the lies and hints industriously circulated by the puerile press of the Territory, I was content to
knowI had positive proof they wore so.
I had ceased to have any fears of their leaving here, and only dreaded for them that they might at any time be ordered to do so. They frequently expressed anxiety to hear from the general, that they might have confidence to build for themselves better houses, but would always say, "You know what we want, and if you can't see him you can write and do for us what you can." It is possible that during this time individuals from here had visited other bands, but that any number had ever been out to assist in any marauding expedition I know is false.
On the morning of April —, I was at breakfast at 7.30 o'clock, when a dispatch was brought to me by a sergeant of Company P, Twenty-first Infantry, from Captain Penn, commanding Camp Lowell, informing me that a large party had left Tucson on the 28th, with the avowed purpose of killing all the Indians at this post. I immediately sent the two interpreters, mounted, to the Indian camp, with orders to tell the chiefs the exact state of things, and for them to bring their entire party inside the post. As I had no cavalry, and but about fifty infantry, (all recruits,) and no other officer, I could not leave the post to go to their defense. My messengers returned in about an hour, with intelligence that they could find no living Indians.
The camp was burning and the ground strewed with their dead and mutilated women and children. I immediately mounted a party of about twenty soldiers and citizens, and sent them with the post surgeon, with a wagon to bring in the wounded, if any could be found. The party returned late in the p.m., having found no wounded and without having been able to communicate with any of the survivors. Early the next morning I took a similar party, with spades and shovels, and went out and buried all the dead in and immediately about the camp. I had the day before offered the interpreters, or any one who could do so, $100 to go to the mountains and communicate with them, and convince them that no officer or soldier of the United States Government had been concerned in the vile transaction, and, failing in this, I thought the act of caring for their dead would be an evidence to them of our sympathy at least, and the conjecture proved correct, for while at the work many of them came to the spot and indulged in their expressions of grief, too wild and terrible to be described.
That evening they began to come in from all directions, singly and in small parties, so changed in forty-eight hours as to be hardly recognizable, during which time they had neither eaten nor slept. Many of the men, whose families bad all been killed, when I spoke to them and expressed sympathy for them, were obliged to turn away, unable to speak; and too proud to show their grief. The women whose children had been killed or stolen were convulsed with grief, and looked to me appealingly, as though I was their last hope on earth. Children who two days before had been full of fun and frolic kept at a distance, expressing wondering horror. I did what I could; I fed them, and talked to them, and listened patiently to their accounts. I sent horses into the mountains to bring in two badly-wounded women, one shot through the left lung and one with an arm shattered. These were attended to, and are, doing well, and will
will liveto show these people that all they have done, and all they can do, shall not make me break faith with you so long as you will stand by us and defend us, in a language we know nothing of, to a great governor we never have nor never shall see." About their captives they say: "Get them back for us; our little boys will grow up slaves, and our girls, as soon as they are large enough, will be diseased prostitutes to get money for whoever owns them. Our women work hard and are good women, and they and our children have no diseases. Our dead you cannot bring to life, but those that are living we gave to you, and we look to you, who can write and talk and have soldiers, to get them back." I will assure you it is no easy task to convince them of my zeal when they see so little being done.
I have pledged my word to them that I never would rest easily, day or night, until they should have justice, and just now I would as soon leave the Army as to be ordered away from them, or to be obliged to order them away from here. But you well know the difficulties in the way. You know that parties who would engage in murder like this, could and would (and have already) make statements and multiply affidavits without end in their justification. I know you will use your influence on the right side. I believe, with them, this may be made either a means of making good citizens of them and their children, or drive them out to a hopeless war of extermination. They ask to be allowed to live here in their old homes, where nature supplies nearly all their wants; they ask for a fair and impartial trial of their faith, and they ask that all their captive children living may be returned to them. Is their demand unreasonable?
Unless some action is taken to convince them that Government means kindness and justice, and they are driven away desperate and disappointed, blinded by ignorance, rage, and superstition, I assure you I could hardly command men to fire on them; and if I fail to do for them now everything in my power, I should expect it to be remembered against me when I am finally called to account as my gravest offense and my greatest life responsibility. This letter has been hastily written, but not inconsiderately. You may consider yourself at liberty to use it as you think best. I am willing for a copy of it to go to the Indian Department. Captain Stanwood will, by this mail, send a full account of the matter direct to division headquarters.
If you are able to accomplish anything, I know you will gratify yourself, and your anxiety to do so has already gratified,Yours, very respectfully,
ROYAL E. WHITMAN,
First Lieutenant Third United States Cavalry.
On this 16th day of September, 1871, personally appeared Conant B. Briesly, who, being duly sworn according to law, deposeth and saith: I am acting assistant surgeon
Sunday morning, April 30, I heard a rumor, just before inspection, that the Indians had been attacked, and learned from Lieutenant Whitman that he had sent the two interpreters to the Indian camp to warn the Indians and bring them down where they could be protected, if possible. The interpreters returned and stated that the attack had already been made, and the Indians dispersed, and that the attacking party were returning.
Lieutenant Whitman then ordered me to go to the Indian camp to render medical assistance and bring down any wounded I might find. I took twelve men (mounted) and a wagon and proceeded without delay to the scene of the murder. On my arrival I found that I should have but little use for wagon or medicine; the work had been too thoroughly done. The camp had been fired and the dead bodies of some twenty-one women and children were lying scattered over the ground; those who had been wounded in the first instance, had their brains beaten out with stones. Two of the best-looking of the squaws were lying in such a position, and from the appearance of the genital organs and of their wounds, there can be no doubt that they were first ravished and then shot dead. Nearly all of the dead were mutilated. One infant of some ten months was shot twice and one leg hacked nearly off. While going over the ground we came upon a squaw who was unhurt, but were unable to get her to come in and talk, she not feeling very sure of our good intentions. Finding nothing further could be done, I returned to the post and reported the state of affairs to Lieutenant Whitman, commanding post.
May 1, Lieutenant Whitman, some citizens, and myself went out to the Indian camp, and on our way we met two squaws and a buck coming in. They stated that their loss was much heavier than we had supposed, and that some eighty-five had been killed, of whom eight only were men, and that some twenty-five of their number had been taken prisoners. We found six more dead bodies, one of which was an old man, two half-grown boys, and three women. The evening of May 1, Lieutenant Whitman sent two Indians, who had come during the day, into the mountains, mounted on horses furnished by him, to bring in two wounded women. The women were brought in in two days. One of them, a wife of Chiquita Capitan, was shot through the left arm, and the other had received a gunshot wound through the left lung. The Indians who came expressed themselves as satisfied that we had nothing to do with the murder, and further stated that their only wish was to get back the captives and live at peace.
I know from my own personal observation that during the time the Indians were in after my arrival, they were rationed every three days, and Indians absent had to be accounted for; their faces soon became familiar to me, and I could at once tell when any strange Indians came in. And I furthermore state that I have been among nearly all the various tribes on the Pacific coast, and that I have never seen any Indians who showed the intelligence, honesty, and desire to learn, manifested by these Indians. I came among them greatly prejudiced against them, but, after being with them, I was compelled to admit that they were honest in their intentions, and really desired peace.C. B. BRIESLY,
Acting Assistant Surgeon United States Army.
Sworn to and subscribed before me this 16th day of September. 1871.
Captain Twenty-first Infantry, Commanding Post.
On this 19th day of September, 1871, personally appeared Oscar Hutton, who, being duly sworn according to law, deposes and says :
I am post-guide at Camp Grant, Arizona Territory. Have occupied the position uninterruptedly for nearly three years under its different commanding officers. I came
From the time the first Indians came to this post, in February, 1871, until April 25, when I was ordered out with a scouting party, I was not absent one day. I was in constant consultation with Lieutenant Whitman in regard to them. I acted as Spanish interpreter at nearly every talk with them, and, when other interpreters were employed, was always present, at the request of Lieutenant Whitman. I did not return to the post until some days after the massacre.
Before Lieutenant Whitman forwarded his account of the affair to Colonel Lee, (which account has since been published,) it was read to me, and I fully concurred in all its statements. Now, after having re-read the letter, I see no point in it that is not accurately and faithfully correct, and I further state that I have never seen Indians on a reservation, or at peace about a military post, under so good subjection, so well satisfied and happy, or more teachable and obedient than were these, up to the time I left the post five days previous to the massacre.
I was repeatedly requested to watch every indication of anything like treachery on their part, and I will give it as my deliberate judgment, that no raiding party was ever made up from the Indians fed at this post. I have every reason to believe that, had they been unmolested, they would have remained, and would have gradually increased in numbers, as they constantly had been doing up to the time I left the post.OSCAR HUTTON.
Sworn to and subscribed before me this 19th day of September, 1871, at Camp Grant, Arizona Territory.
Captain Twenty first Infantry.
On this 19th day of September, 1871, personally appeared F. L. Austin, who, being duly sworn according to law, deposes and says:
I am post-trader at Camp Grant, Arizona Territory; have been in Arizona nearly four years; have heard a great deal of the Apache Indians, and was once attacked by them on the Tucson road; I was at this post when the first Indians came in here in February, 1871, and nearly all the time up to the time of the massacre, April 30. I was taking breakfast with Lieutenant Whitman at about half-past seven a.m. of that day, when the dispatch from Captain Dunn was delivered. I have read the letter of Lieutenant Whitman to Colonel Lee, (since published,) and I fully indorse it throughout. The Indians while here seemed to be under perfect control, and in all my business with them, in paying for some one hundred and fifty tons of hay for the contractor, never had any trouble or difficulty of any kind. They very readily learn any little customs of trade, etc. It is my opinion they would have remained and increased in numbers had they not been attacked.F. L. AUSTIN.
Sworn to and subscribed before me this 19th day of September, 1871, at Camp Grant, Arizona Territory.
Captain Twenty-first Infantry.
On this 19th day of September, 1871, personally appeared Miles L. Wood, who, being duly sworn according to law, deposes and says :
I have been contractor's agent for the delivery of beef at this post since December, 1870. While the Indians were at this post, I was not absent one day, and personally issued to them every pound of beef drawn by them. They brought tickets to me, on which I issued. After completing the issue, I took the tickets to the office of the assistant commissary of subsistence, and verified them by the official count of that day. I never had any trouble in my delivery. Lieutenant Whitman selected an Indian for policeman, gave him his orders, and good order was always preserved. I have lived in California, and have seen a great deal of Indians. Have heard a good deal of the Apaches, and was much surprised at the general intelligence and good behavior of
Sworn to and subscribed before me this 19th day of September, 1871, at Camp Grant, Arizona Territory.
Captain Twenty-first Infantry
On this 19th day of September, 1871, personally appeared William Kness, who, being duly sworn according to law, deposes and says:
I have resided at this post and Tucson since the 24th of last February; was employed to carry the mail from Tucson to Camp Grant up to the 24th of April; after that I was interpreter until the 30th of April, the day of the massacre, since which time, and whenever the Indians have returned to the post, I have acted as interpreter. I have been on the frontiers for twenty-six years; am familiar with Indians and their habits; have fought them and lived peaceably with them. I had not much faith in Apaches; till I came to Camp Grant I was prejudiced against them. I made it a point to study the character and habits of the Apache Indians at Camp Grant before the massacre, and the result was that I was convinced that they were acting in good faith and earnestly desired peace; they were industrious, the women particularly so. Among all the Indians I have ever seen, I never met with as great regard for virtue and chastity as I have found among these Apache women. In regard to the charge that after they were fed they went out on raiding parties, I have to say that I do not believe it. They were contented under our supervision, being in every three days for rations, and their faces familiar, and their number constantly increasing. I have read the statement of Oscar Hutton in regard to this point, and I have no doubt that he is correct—that no raiding parties were ever made by the Indians from this post. I also believe that if the massacre had not occurred, we should have had from 800 to 1,000 Apache Indians on this reservation before this time.
There were one hundred and sixty-six at the distribution of clothing by Commissioner Colyer on the 16th of September, and this morning there are seventy-nine more in from Captain Chiquita’s band for the same purpose, and I firmly believe that if they are let alone and firmly protected, they will remain at peace and advance in civilization.WILLIAM KNESS.
Sworn to and subscribed before me this 19th day of September, 1871, at Camp Grant, Arizona Territory.
Captain Twenty-first Infantry.
September 10, 1871.
SIR: I have the honor to submit for your consideration the following statement relative to the so-called Camp Grant Indians, properly known as Aravapa Indians, who were collected upon this reservation early in the spring of the year current. I have been on duty at this post as an officer of the Third United States Cavalry since October 17, 1870. I was present at this post about the middle of February, when the first Aravapa Indians came in and asked for terms of peace. The subject was first introduced by two or three squaws, who came in under flag of truce, and informed the post commander, Lieutenant Royal E. Whitman, Third Cavalry, that a large number of the Aravapa Indians desired to come into the post, with a view to the establishment of a permanent peace with the Government of the United States. After hearing the wishes of the Indians expressed, Lieutenant Whitman granted permission for those who desired to come in and talk, telling the squaws that he desired to converse with the chiefs of bands, and assuring them that those who came in for that purpose would be protected and allowed to go out unmolested, provided the terms of peace should not
You have asked me, sir, to state to the best of my knowledge the general character
The general reputation for honesty of the Apache tribe is poor; but these people, as I have before stated, gave no cause of complaint until their final outbreak, the causes of which it would, perhaps, be well to consider before condemning all. Of these causes I understand you will be informed, so that it is unnecessary for me to mention them here. As regards any acts of hostility committed by these Indians from the time they came upon the reservation up to their final outbreak, June 8, 1871, at which time they killed Charles McKenney, I submit the following: From the time they came in, these Indians were counted and their numbers recorded every three days. I kept no journal at that time, but very frequently went with Lieutenant Whitman and counted the various bands; those counts, of course, were recorded, as the issues were made accordingly, and the records, I believe, are preserved. Comparing, then, the date of any depredation in Southern Arizona, or elsewhere, with the records, will show whether or not any of these Indians could have been engaged therein. In this, however, there is one difficulty, viz: At various times: small parties were permitted to go out for mescal, as the allowance was not sufficient; during these periods I am unable to vouch for their acts, and can only say that usually those who went out were mostly women and children, it being the custom among the Indians of this tribe, as of others, to require their women to do the greater portion of their work. For the reasons stated, it is impossible for me to say positively that no Indians upon the reservation engaged in hostilities, but my conviction was that they did not, and I shall continue so to believe until I have seen some evidence to the contrary. I do not consider the statements of a few citizens that some of these Indians had committed depredations a sufficient proof to warrant the indiscriminate murder of a whole band, and it is certain that it was impossible for any large number to have been engaged in hostilities during the time the bands were here; moreover, I do now doubt the ability of any person or persons to prove that any one Indian of these bands committed a single, hostile act from the time of their arrival here, about the middle of February, 1871. It has been asserted that this fact can be proved. By proof, I mean sufficient proof to convict before a properly constituted tribunal. I have not arrived at the conclusions I have formed on account of any especial love for the Apache tribe, nor from any prejudice against the citizens of this Territory, among whom I have found fine gentlemen and warm friends. On the contrary, I was strongly opposed to the peace policy with these Indians when they first came in, and was not convinced of their sincerity to until I received evidence by watching their actions carefully. Moreover, as I was in nowise responsible in the Indian matter, I consider myself an impartial spectator from the middle of February up to the 11th of April, at which time I left the post on leave of absence, and from May 21 to June 8. In closing, I deem it my duty, sir, to mention a subject in connection with the Indian question which relates to the acts of an officer of the Army, viz: Lieutenant Royal E. Whitman, Third Cavalry. Attempts have been made, principally through the columns of the Arizona Citizen, a journal published in Tucson, Arizona Territory, to make it appear that this officer was a debauched scoundrel and a slave to vice. Among other things, he has been accused of associating with Indian women, and of being a confirmed drunkard. I know little of this officer's history previous to his assuming command of this post, December last, but from the time the Indians came in up to the 11th of April, and from May 21 to the time they left, to the best of my knowledge he touched not a drop of liquor. The other statement given in the Arizona Citizen had not the slightest foundation in truth. Of his official acts, if I had a right to speak, I could speak only in his praise; but the records of this post are his sufficient vouchers. I have taken this liberty to correct the abuse that has been hurled at Lieutenant Whitman, for the reason that I have been a great portion of the time the only officer serving with him, and I have not corrected it before for the reason that no proper opportunity presented itself.
The statements I have set forth in the foregoing I certify on my honor are correct, and have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,W. W. ROBINSON, JR.,
Second Lieutenant third United States Cavalry.
July 13, 1871.
Hon. C. DELANO,
Secretary of the Interior :
Mr. Colyer, secretary of the board of Indian peace commissioners, has told me of the report of Superintendent Pope, to the effect that with enlarged powers and assurances of protection and proper provisions, the wild Indians of New Mexico and Arizona may now be induced to come into Cañada Alamosa. I suggest that enlarged powers be given to Superintendent Pope to effect so desirable an object, or that Mr. Colyer be sent with all the necessary powers. I will direct the War Department to give all the assistance necessary to carry out the object of Mr. Pope or Mr. Colyer, as the case may be.
Please call on the Secretary of War, or, in his absence, upon General Sherman, for such orders to the troops for supplying transportation, provisions, or escort as may be needed to carry out the designs of the Indian Bureau in the matter.Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
U. S. GRANT.
Washington, D. C., July 21, 1871.
SIR: You are hereby authorized and requested to proceed to New Mexico and Arizona Territories, and there take such action as in your judgment may be deemed wisest and most proper for locating the nomadic tribes of those Territories upon suitable reservations; bringing them under the control of the proper officers of the Indian Department, and supplying them with necessary subsistence and clothing, and whatever else may be needed.
The Department invests you with full powers, to be exercised according to your discretion, in carrying into effect its views in relation to the Indians referred to, and I have to request that you will, from time to time, report to the Secretary of the Interior your action and progress and the result of your investigations.
I transmit herewith, for your information, a copy of a letter of this date from the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, together with the papers therein referred to.Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
B. R. COWEN,
Secretary Board Indian Commissioners, present.
OFFICE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS,
Washington, D. C., July 21, 1871.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit you herewith a copy of office letter of the 18th of March last to Superintendent Pope, of New Mexico, directing him to send Apache chief Cochise and other prominent Indians of that tribe to this city, for the purpose of conferring with this Department in regard to the condition and welfare of their people. I also forward copies of letters, in reply thereto, from Superintendent Pope, of the dates of April 6, April 21, May 14, and June 28, in which he reports his progress in the search for said Indians and the finding of Cochise, but that he was unable to prevail upon him then to come in, because of his fear of the military and the citizens. I also transmit a copy of a letter from Governor Pile, of New Mexico, dated June 19, 1871, referred to this Department by the Secretary of State.
The President having directed that enlarged powers be given to Superintendent Pope, or that Mr. Colyer be sent with the necessary powers to establish friendly relations with and locate the wild Indians of New Mexico and Arizona, I would respectfully suggest, as requested by you in verbal conversation yesterday, that the above letters be taken by Mr. Colyer as his guide of procedure, and that, in addition, he be
E. S. PARKER,
Secretary of the Interior.
SIR: Yours of June 15 was duly received, giving me the information I requested, etc., for which accept my thanks. I was also pleased to hear from Captain Stevens, although sorry to hear he is so sick; he is a noble, good man.
Since the receipt of your letter I have been notified of several Indian depredations being committed on the Mimbres River on the 19th of June. Indians stole three horses from the Upper Mimbres while picketed within four hundred yards of the house of George O. Perrault, justice of the peace of that precinct, who at the time was trying a case for the parties whose horses were stolen. They were followed about thirty miles in the direction of your reservation by the owners of the horses on foot. About the same time two or three horses were stolen from a ranch about seven miles above the town of Rio Mimbres; since then some cattle were stolen from the same ranch and followed to your reservation, where they were recovered, for which I thank you. About a week ago two horses and one mule were stolen by Indians from near Fort Bayard, which stock was followed some distance in the direction of your reserve.
I am reliably informed, by prominent citizens who have seen and conversed with the Mexicans who followed and recovered their oxen from the Indians on your reservation, that they saw, in possession of Indians under your charge, other stolen stock that they identified, but that you was not able to recover it from the Indians, and that they positively refused to give it up to the owners or to yourself; therefore I hope that this matter will be fully explained to Superintendent Pope, to see how long this state of affairs is to exist. What we want to know is, whether our stock can be recovered or not from Indians on your reservation, when fully proved and identified, or if we are to be forever at the mercy of these thieving, murderous Apaches, who have a house of refuge at Alamosa? If so, the sooner we know it the better, because the citizens of this country are determined to put a stop to it, and, if they carry out their programme,
the Camp Grant massacre will be thrown entirely in the shade, and Alamosa will rank next to Sand Creek."
I have done my best to keep the people of Grant County from committing any overt act; but unless we have some reliable protection furnished us soon from the thieving, murderous villains, whom you are feeding and have not power to keep from robbing and plundering our people, I shall hereafter do nothing to prevent an armed body of true bold frontiersmen from leaving this county on one of the numerous trails that lead to Alamosa, to find their stock and punish the robbers and murderers wherever they may find them.
I do hope you may do all in your power to prevent such a thing, but I can assure you unless something is done soon, our indignant citizens will turn out
en masseand settle the Alamosa reservation question fully. Hoping to hear from you soon,I remain, yours truly,
O. F. PIPER, Esq.,
Indian Agent at Cañada Alamosa, New Mexico.
Cañada Alamosa, New Mexico, July 24, 1871.
DEAR SIR: Yours of the 17th instant received. You have been misinformed of what occurred here when the two Mexicans from Rio Mimbres were here looking for stock stolen from them. The chiefs came in the morning these men came, to inform me that two or three of their young men had stolen some animals (giving the number and
I again, through you, say to the people of Grant County, that if they trace their lost stock to the reservation, and will come to me in a peaceful manner, I have no doubt that they will recover them.
I also assure you that the Indian Department is doing, and will do, all that is possible to protect the people of this Territory, and settle the Indian troubles. A little patience and forbearance by the people at this particular time will go far to assist in this object. I will refer your letter to the superintendent of Indian affairs for this Territory.Yours truly,
O. F. PIPER,
United States Indian Agent.
Hon. R. HUDSON,
Pinos Altas, New Mexico.
July 27, 1871.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith a private letter from Judge Hudson, of Grant County, and a copy of my reply. The letter contains severe threats that I thought you should be notified of. I recovered all the stolen stock claimed by the parties mentioned in the Judge's letter, except one horse, which I have good reasons for believing was not brought here. I am confident that the chiefs and leading men are doing all in their power to prevent any of their people from committing depredations on the citizens of the Territory.Respectfully, your obedient servant,
O. F. PIPER,
United States Indian Agent.
NATHANIEL POPE, Esq.,
Superintendent Indian Affairs, Santa Fé, New Mexico.
July 30, 1871.
COLONEL: I have the honor to inclose herewith resolutions of the people at Rio Mimbres, New Mexico, so as to show you the feeling of the citizens of Grant County, which I hope will call your immediate attention to affairs at the Alamosa reservation, as our citizens are determined to take the law in their own hands, if it is impossible to get justice from you or your subordinates.
I have used my best endeavors, and have kept our citizens from going to Alamosa on former occasions, in hopes that some measures would be taken to return stolen stock to persons claiming it and proving their property personally to the agents.
I have no fault to find with Mr. Piper, but our citizens say he is powerless with the Indians at Alamosa at present. Hoping you will give this matter your prompt attention, and keep our citizens from doing an overt act that I should very much regret,I am, yours respectfully,
Probate Judge, Grant County, New Mexico.
Superintendent of Indian Affairs, Santa Fé, New Mexico.
The president explained the object and wish of the meeting to be, to take what steps were deemed necessary in view of the incessant robberies by Indians.
The following preamble and resolutions were introduced by the committee and unanimously adopted by the meeting :
Whereas the people of Rio Mimbres, Grant County, New Mexico, have been continually robbed and plundered of their stock and household goods, and have, by actually following their stock, found it on the Indian reservation at Cañada Alamosa, and, upon identifying their property, could not recover it or get any satisfaction from the Indian agent; and whereas the Constitution of the United States grants to every American citizen the right of life, liberty, and property; and whereas they have until now supplicated in vain to the authorities, both civil and military, for a redress of their grievances; therefore, be it
Resolved, That our own is all we ask, and will and must have, even at the peril and sacrifice of our lives and property.
Resolved, That the people of Grant County, New Mexico, organize themselves into a posse, and follow their stock to wherever it may be, and take it by force wherever found, even if it be at the sacrifice of every Indian man, woman, and child, in the tribe.
Resolved, That if opposed by Indians or their accomplices, be they Indian agents, Indian traders, or Army officers, let them be looked upon as our worst enemies, and the common enemies of New Mexico, and be dealt with accordingly.
Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be forwarded to the probate judge of this county.
No other business being before the meeting, it adjourned
sine die. R. V. NEWSHAM, President.
HENRY SCHWENKER, Secretary.
Santa Fé, New Mexico, August 3, 1871.
SIR: Inclosed herewith I send you a copy of resolutions passed on the 9th July, 1871, by the citizens of Rio Mimbres, New Mexico, regarding the depredations of the Indians of your agency; also a copy of a letter from Hon. R. Hudson, probate judge, dated Pinos Altas, New Mexico, 30th July, 1871, upon the same subject.
You are directed to make every effort to recover any stolen property that may be brought to your reservation, and to secure the thieves for punishment. If necessary, you will call upon the commanding officer of the nearest military post for troops to enforce your demands for thieves and stolen property. If you cannot secure the thieves, drive them from the reservation.
You will keep your Indians on the lookout for scouting parties, and send them far enough to enable you to learn of the approach of scouts in time to call for troops, if you consider it necessary to prevent an attack.
I have requested the commanding officer of this district to hold a sufficient force in readiness to enable you to carry out these instructions, and to prevent a repetition of the Camp Grant affair.With much respect, your obedient servant,
O. F. PIPER, Esq.,
Indian Agent, Cañada Alamosa, New Mexico.
Santa Fé, New Mexico, August 4, 1871.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith, for your information, a copy of a letter from Hon. R. Hudson, dated Pinos Altas, New Mexico, 20th July, 1871, transmitting a series of resolutions passed by the citizens of Rio Mimbres, New Mexico, dated 19th July, 1871, regarding the depredations of the Apache Indians located at Cañada Alamosa, New Mexico; also copies of a letter from Hon. R. Hudson to Agent Piper, dated Pinos Altas, New Mexico, 18th July, 1871, and Agent Piper's reply, dated Cañada Ala-mosa, New Mexico, 27th July, 1871, and a copy of a letter to me from Agent Piper, all upon the same subject.
I have directed Agent Piper to make every effort to recover any stolen property that may be brought to his reservation, and, if necessary, to call upon the commanding officer of the nearest military post for troops to enforce his demands for thieves and stolen property, and have also directed him to keep his Indians on the lookout for scouting parties, so that he may be advised of their approach in time to call for troops, if he considers it necessary to prevent an attack.
Therefore I have to request that at least one company of troops may be held in readiness to move at short notice to assist Agent Piper should he consider it desirable to apply for a force to prevent an attack upon the Indians of his agency, or to secure thieving Indians and recover stolen property.With much respect, your obedient servant,
Superintendent of Indian Affairs.
The COMMANDING OFFICER,
District of New Mexico, Santa Fé, New Mexico.
DEAR SIR: According to promise, I drop you a few lines to let you know what is going on in the "land of the Apaches." I returned from Tucson on the 24th instant. General Crook left that place on the 11th, with five companies of cavalry, en route to Apache Pass, supposed to be after Cochise. Arizona people expect great things of him, and say that he has unfurled the black flag, and goes in for extermination or a permanent peace.
Indians about Tucson are numerous, committing many depredations which you undoubtedly have seen account of ere this.
Miguel, the chief of the Coyoteros near this place, has refused to leave his country, and has offered his services to Colonel Green to fight any of the Apaches. We all believe in him, and are satisfied that he has always acted in good faith with the whites, and will continue to do so. He and his people have a large amount of corn planted this year, and have prospects of a fine crop. There have been no rations given to Indians at this post for over two months; still, Miguel and his people are quiet, and have committed no depredations. Hawkins, who was lately shot at Prescott, has two thousand head of cattle on the Little Colorado, and at present has but two herders, and the cattle scatter for several miles, but as yet the Indians have not taken or killed any of them. Miguel says that all the Indians of his band have promised him not to go near or interfere with them in any way.
We are making preparations for a big campaign, and will fight Apaches with Apaches. Miguel and some of his people go with us. I want you, governor, to try and do something for old Miguel. I assure you that he deserves it more than any other Indian in the country, and I know, governor, that you have the influence and the power, and that you take great interest in the Indian; so turn your attention over this way and help old Miguel. If you can possibly do so, come over and see us, and have a talk and see for yourself. Colonel Green sends his regards. I gave Charley Franklin a note to you while in Tucson; I hope yon will give it your attention; it will be for the benefit of the Quenas. I will send you, by next chance, a note to Vincent Colyer, in regard to what we spoke about at Wingate. I have talked to Miguel about you, and he is very anxious to see you; so come on.I am, governor, very respectfully, yours, etc., etc.,
C. E. COOLEY.
W. F. M. ARNY, Esq.,
Santa Fé, New Mexico.
SIR: You will please see that the peaceable band of the Coyotero Apaches, under their chief Miguel, at Camp Apache, Arizona, are supplied with beef, corn, and clothing, (blankets, manta, etc.,) to an amount not exceeding $2,000; and I would suggest that Agent W. F. M. Arny be directed to extend his visit from the Zuni Pueblo village to
NATHANIEL POPE, Esq.,
Superintendent Indian Affairs, New Mexico.
Hon. C. DELANO,
Secretary of the Interior, Washington, D. C.:
The roving Apaches rapidly coming in; twelve hundred now at Cañada Alamosa; five hundred at Fort Stanton, New Mexico. Cochise heard from. Runners sent out from several points to give Indians fair warning, if they want peace, must come to reservations. I leave for Alamosa this morning with Superintendent Pope. All the Utes seriously discontented. (supplied) Should be promptly attended to. Navajoes quiet; have over forty thousand sheep; will be self-sustaining in few years. The schools among Pueblos well attended.VINCENT COLYER.
SIR: Mr. Trujillo has just got in without seeing Cochise. He says that he very unexpectedly met General Crook, who ordered him back, and refused to recognize his authority to go to Cochise's camp, and threw his letter down in disdain, saying that the superintendent of Indian affairs in New Mexico nor any of the Indian agents had any authority to send parties to Arizona; that his instructions authorized him to capture any American or Mexican that was found in his route. He also says that they attempted to arrest his Indian, but Lieutenant Ross knew Loco, and interceded for him. General Crook would not let him get his rations, which were at some distance from where he met the party. The general told them that they were lucky to get back with their lives without their rations. If you can return here, I think that this affair should be investigated further.Yours truly,
O. F. PIPER.
NATHANIEL POPE, Esq.
I should also state that General Crook selected the route for him to return, and told him not to go by any other.
For the Mohave Apaches, at Camp Verde, Arizona Territory. See paper marked D. A detailed description of the Camp Apache reservation, which was established by Major General Thomas, will be found on file in the War Department.
I also requested, with the advice of General Crook, and the several post commanders, that temporary asylums, where the Tontos, Hualapais, and Western Band of Apache Mohaves might be protected and fed, should be established at Camp McDowell, Bears Spring, and Date Creek, until such times as the Indians collected there could be removed to permanent reservations.Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Hon. C. DELANO,
Secretary of the Interior, Washington, D. C.
NOTE.—The Camp Apache or White Mountain reservation was selected and its boundaries fixed by the late Major General Thomas, United States Army, with the view of placing all the roving Apache Indians of Arizona and Western New Mexico upon it. As that scheme did not appear to me practicable at this present time, and yet might become so in a few years, I thought it best to still reserve this extensive tract, as yet wholly unsettled, until such time as the experiment contemplated by General Thomas may be attempted, should the Government ever deem it advisable to try it.
August 29, 1871.
SIR: Agreeably to the power conferred upon me by the President, and communicated to me in the letter of the honorable Secretary of the Interior of the 22d July, 1871, that I should proceed to New Mexico and Arizona, and there take such action as in my judgment should be deemed wisest and most proper for locating the nomadic tribes of those Territories upon suitable reservations, bringing them under the control of the proper officers of the Indian Department, etc.; assisted by yourself and O. F. Piper, agent for the Southern Apache Indians, I have carefully examined the place and neighborhood at Cañada Alamosa, where the agency is at present located, and for several reasons find the same unsuitable for a reservation. Assisted by the officers named above, I have also carefully inspected the valley of the Tularosa, and finding the same to possess most of the requisites necessary to a home for the Indians, it being remote from white settlements, surrounded by mountains not easily crossed, sufficient arable lands, good water, and plenty of wood and game, I hereby declare the said valley of the Tularosa, beginning at the head-waters of the Tularosa River and its tributaries in the mountains, and extending down the same ten miles on each side for a distance of thirty miles, to be an Indian reservation, for the sole use and occupation of the Southern and other roving bands of Apache Indians, their agent, and other officers and employés of the Government, the laws relating to Indian reservations in the United States governing the same until such time as the Executive or Congress shall approve or set aside this order. I would, therefore, suggest that Agent Piper be instructed to remove his agency and the Indians under his charge from Cañada Alamosa to the Tularosa Valley, as soon as practicable after the receipt of this letter. The War Department having directed the officers commanding the district of New Mexico and Arizona to afford military protection to such Indians as may be induced to come in, both on their way and after arrival at the reservation, the agency will be amply protected, and the Department having authorized me to supply those Indians with whatever may be necessary, you are at liberty to incur such moderate expenditure as may be absolutely necessary to carry out the above instructions.Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
NATHANIEL POPE, Esq.,
Superintendent of Indian Affairs.
September 5, 1871.
SIR: As the White Mountain region has been set apart by the War Department as an Indian reservation, and there are several bands of peaceably disposed Apaches who
Agreeable to your wish that I should name the articles and amount of provisions to be issued, I would suggest that one pound of beef and one pound of corn per capita be issued with salt daily, and sugar and coffee occasionally.Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
VINCENT COLYER, Commissioner.
Lieutenant Colonel JOHN GREEN,
First Cavalry, U. S. A., Commanding Camp Apache, Arizona Territory.
HEADQUARTERS MILITARY DIVISION OF THE PACIFIC,
San Francisco, California, January 31, 1870.
SIR: I respectfully forward the following description of the proposed Indian reservation in Arizona. The boundaries of the reservation to be as follows, as shown in red on the accompanying map: Starting at the point of intersection of the boundary between New Mexico and Arizona, with the south edge of the Black Mesa, and following the southern edge of the Black Mesa to a point due north of Sombrero or Plumoso Butte, then due south to said Sombrero or Plumoso Butte, then in the direction of the Picache Colorado to the crest of the Apache Mountains, following said crest down the Salt River to Pinal Creek, and then up the Pinal Creek to the top of the Pinal Mountains, then following the crest of the Pinal range, "the Cordilleras de in Gila," the "Almagra Mountains," and other mountains bordering the north bank of the Gila River, to the New Mexican boundary near Steeple Rock, then following said boundary north to its intersection with the south edge of the Black Mesa, the starting point.Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
H. M. ROBERT,
General W. D. WHIPPLE,
Adjutant General Military Division of the Pacific.
September 18, 1871.
SIR: The boundaries of the reservation, selected with the approval of the President and Secretary of the Interior and Secretary of War, at Camp Grant, Arizona Territory, within the limits of which all peaceably disposed Arivapa, Pinal, and other roving bands of Apache Indians are hereafter to be protected, fed, and otherwise provided for, will be as follows: Bounded north by the Gila River; west by a line ten miles from and parallel to the general course of the San Pedro River; south by a line at right angles to the western boundary, crossing the San Pedro ten miles from Camp Grant; east by a line at right angles to the southern boundary, touching the western base of Mount Turnbull, terminating at the Gila River, the northern boundary.
Citizens who have built, or are now working, ranches within the above-described boundaries, will be allowed to remain, to secure their crops and care for their property, until further orders from Washington, D. C.; provided they conform to the laws prescribed by Congress for the government of Indian reservations.
A copy of the laws and regulations governing this, as well as all other Indian reservations, will be forwarded to you on my return to Washington.Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Lieutenant ROYAL E. WHITMAN, U. S. A.,
In charge Indian reservation, Camp Grant, Arizona Territory
October 3 1871.
GENERAL: Having personally inspected the country and the condition of the Apache Mohave Indians on the Verde River above this post, and finding the Indians to be in considerable numbers sick, destitute, and in a starving condition; having no boundaries defining their home; their country overran by hunters who kill their game, and not unfrequently kill the Indians—gold prospectors and others, none of whom locate in this section of the country—agreeably to the powers conferred upon me by the President, and communicated to me in the letter of the Secretary of the Interior dated July 21, 1871, and the orders of the Secretary of War of July 18 and 31, 1871, and in harmony with the humane action of Congress in providing funds for this purpose, I have concluded to declare all that portion of country adjoining on the northwest side of and above the military reservation of this post, on the Verde River, for a distance of ten miles on both sides of the river to the point where the old wagon-road to New Mexico crosses the Verde, supposed to be a distance up the river of about forty-five miles, to be an Indian reservation, within the limits of which all peaceably disposed Apache Mohave Indians are to be protected, fed, and otherwise cared for, and the laws of Congress and Executive orders relating to the government of Indian reservations shall have full power and force within the boundaries of the same unless otherwise ordered by Congress or the President.Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
VINCENT COLYER, Commissioner.
Brevet Major General C. GROVER,
Commanding Camp Verde, Arizona Territory.
Industry of the Apaches.—Testimony of Colonel Green.
December 31, 1870.
SIR: I have the honor to inclose orders Nos. 66 and 67, current series, and would respectfully ask their approval by the department commander.
The Indians furnished one hundred and thirty tons of hay, at $30 per ton, for which they were paid in flour, charging cost and transportation, 16 cents per pound. After they delivered this amount of hay, I ordered the acting assistant quartermaster to purchase sixty additional tons, and pay them in corn; but the weather became so bad they could not furnish it at that time, and as they had nothing to eat but the beef issued, I directed the acting commissary of subsistence to purchase six thousand pounds of corn from the quartermaster's department and issue it to them. I afterward concluded it would be better to keep them employed, and therefore directed the purchase of the wood from them.
My whole aim is to keep them employed this winter if possible, as I think it will induce them to plant more next season than if they were fed for nothing; but the difficulty is, they furnish the wood so fast that in a few days we shall have enough for the winter; they bring at the rate of thirty cords per day. When they furnished hay, they brought as high as fifteen tons in one day; and it must be remembered that the former is broken off by hand or cut with worn-out axes, and the latter cut by knives, and all carried in on their backs. It is wonderful with what alacrity they go to work. It is true, nearly all is done by women and children, but a few men also work—more than at first; but this is the custom of the Indian, and cannot be eradicated at once. If the weather continues good we shall commence receiving the sixty additional tons of hay in a few days—not that the hay is of the best quality at this late season, but in order to give the Indians employment, which I believe will meet the views of the department commander, from what he said when at this post.I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Major First Cavalry, Commanding Post.
ASSISTANT ADJUTANT GENERAL,
Department of Arizona.
SIR: There being no grain on hand here, and no hay fit for feeding, I was in considerable trouble as to how to subsist the animals of the post, until I thought the hay might be furnished by the Indians, and I at once tried the experiment, directing the acting assistant quartermaster to pay them $1 per one hundred pounds, either in currency or quartermaster's or commissary stores, charging cost and transportation for the two latter; and it was really interesting to see with what spirit they went to work, and what nice, clean hay they brought in, much superior to any I have seen furnished by contractors in Arizona. Yesterday, upwards of four thousand pounds were brought. Even the children went to work with great alacrity; one little child, that could scarcely more than walk, brought in nine pounds, for which he received three-quarters of a pound of flour, and was highly delighted with his success: I propose to supply the new post with hay in the same way, which will be much cheaper than if done by contract.
As we have to feed these Indians more or less, I would even recommend that wood for fuel be received from them, paying, say, $5 per cords and thus show them that labor is valuable and brings its own reward. While the Indian will he a gainer the Government will not be a loser, as I propose to make them pay cost and transportation for what is issued to them.
I was sorry that the supply of grain at this post did not admit of my complying fully with the general's wishes in giving them corn for seed. I could illy spare a very small amount, so that their planting will not be as extensive this year as I had hoped. I am in hopes that by next year I will be able to furnish them sufficient seed, and would also respectfully recommend that the department commander urge the necessity of furnishing the ruder implements of agriculture, as at present their only means of farming are sharpened sticks, and it is wonderful to see with what advantage they use them. They frequently ask for other seed than corn, particularly pumpkins, beans, squashes, and melons. It would, probably, be well for the Indian Bureau to send an agent to look after the interests of these people.
I know the War Department is very close in regard to the issue of rations to Indians; it believes they should be fed out of the Indian appropriations; but can I see them starve before my eyes and not give them relief?
I ask them, "Why are you so poor?" and the answer invariably is, "How can we be otherwise? We had not much originally, and now we can get nothing; we do not steal. We cannot go to the mescal country, as we are liable to be met and killed by scouting parties." I know myself this to be the case, hence they have either to starve or steal, or we must feed them until they can raise enough for themselves.
I would also recommend that if they really turn out faithful they be furnished with stock cattle which can be very cheaply purchased in Texas by the herd; also some sheep, which can be as cheaply bought in New Mexico; thus in a few years they will not only be self-sustaining, but have material for sale. Here I would state that the above propositions would of course be only an experiment, but one I think well worth trying. The Pinal Indians have sent me word that they are desirous to come in and be at peace, but they are afraid we will either confine or kill them. I suppose they are influenced by guilty consciences. I have sent them messengers to say if they want to have a talk, I will guarantee their safety and report their words to my superior officers. I expect them back in a few days, when I will report the result of their mission. I gave the messenger particularly to understand we did not care whether they came in or not, but if they did they might do so with perfect safety.I am, sir, very respectfully,
Major First Cavalry, Brevet Lieut. Colonel U. S. A., Commanding Post.
ASSISTANT ADJUTANT GENERAL,
Department of California.
August 13, 1870.
SIR: I have the honor to report that the Indian chief, Cochise, sent a message to me, saying that he wanted to make peace with the whites, and was tired of war, and that he would like to make arrangements to come and see me himself, but, as he is such an old offender, I thought it best to ask instructions from the department commander in regard to his case. All the Indians seem to think that if they come here and talk with me they are all right, notwithstanding I have been endeavoring to explain to them, at all times, that I have no authority to make any arrangement with them, except that while they were not marauding, but remained in this part of the country, they would
ASSISTANT ADJUTANT GENERAL,
Department of Arizona, Prescott, Arizona Territory.
Order of Captain Wm. Nelson forbidding armed bodies of citizens from crossing the Indian reservation.
September 13, 1871.
II. The vicinity of this post having been selected as an Indian reservation, and its limits not yet having been fixed, no armed body of citizens will be permitted to come within ten (10) miles of this post.WM. NELSON,
Captain Twenty-first Infantry, Commanding Post.
SIR: I have the honor to report that under telegraphic instructions from the Secretary of War, transmitted through headquarters department of Arizona, I proceeded to collect in the friendly disposed Indians, and in a few days three bands were represented at this reservation by over one hundred Indians, about which time two Mexicans came to this post from Tucson and reported that an expedition was being gotten up there for the purpose of attacking the Indians collected here.
I immediately communicated with the commanding officer at Camp Lowell in reference to the matter, and requested his assistance to prevent such an attempt. He ordered Captain Dunn, Twenty-first Infantry, to this post, to consult with me on the subject. On his arrival here, Captain Dunn informed me that a large party, composed of citizens of Tucson, Mexicans, and Indians, would leave Tucson the day after he left, and that the party intended passing through this reservation on a prospecting tour. The next day Mr. Vincent Colyer arrived at the post, and I informed him of the state of affairs, he showing me his authority--copies of which have been forwarded to you--requested me, if possible, to prevent the expedition from Tucson from crossing the reservation, and authorized me to proclaim a reservation of ten miles from the post in either direction, until the limit of the reservation could be defined. Some of the leading men of the expedition from Tucson arrived at the post the evening of the day upon which Mr. Colyer arrived. I saw and informed them that under the circumstances it was my opinion the presence of such a party from Tucson at the particular time would be antagonistic to, and probably defeat, Mr. Colyer's mission, and requested that they pass around the reservation. I was informed that my request would not be complied with, and that the party, some two hundred strong, would reach the post about daylight the following morning, and would cross the reservation.
I immediately issued an order forbidding armed parties of citizens approaching within ten miles of the post, and sent a courier with a copy out to meet the party, with instructions to report the result without delay. The courier retained about 3 o'clock in the morning, reported having found the party encamped twelve miles out, and that they informed him that they would cross the reservation.
I then sent Lieutenant Whitman, Third Cavalry, out to inform them that I was prepared to enforce my orders, and had my guns in position, and would open fire upon them on the approach at the mouth of the cañon opposite the post. At the same time sent out my water-wagon loaded, so they should not suffer in case they concluded to go back, which they very reluctantly decided to do. I would respectfully state, in connection, I do not think the present strength of garrison sufficient to insure this reservation against attacks similar to the one made here some months since.Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Captain Twenty-first Infantry, Commanding.
ASSISTANT ADJUTANT GENERAL,
Department of Arizona, Prescott, Arizona Territory.
October 25, 1871.
LIEUTENANT: At the suggestion of Hon. Vincent Colyer, I proceeded on my return from Camp Grant, to place on foot an investigation for the purpose of ascertaining the whereabouts of as many as possible of the captives taken at the massacre of Apache Indians near your post on the 30th of April last.
In my report to the department for the quarter ending September 30, 1871, transmitted through Superintendent H. Bendell, Arizona City, I stated that I had discovered the residence of five of these captives, had made application to have them turned over to me to be returned to their proper homes and families, and been refused; and t (supplied)hat I should immediately take legal measures to obtain possession.
Since then I have been informed by the United States district attorney that you are the proper person to proceed in this matter. That these Indians having been under your control, you are the proper officer to make application for writ of habeas corpus and take possession of these children as your wards. I therefore hasten to give you all the information in my possession up to the present time. There are eight of the captives now in possession of parties residing in and near Tucson, as follows: At the "Mission of San Xavier Del Bac," nine miles from Tucson, Jesus Mendosa has one girl ten years old, shot through arm and slightly wounded in side. Nicolas Martinez has one captive; Jose Lucas has one captive. In Tucson, Arizona Territory, the following: Leopoldo Corilo has one captive; Manuel Martinez has one captive; Francisco Romero has two captives. I am also informed that Manuel Duran, Apache guide, sold one captive, a girl aged six years. I will try and ascertain where this child is, and inform you at once. Should you desire, I shall take great pleasure in furnishing you with the necessary form of procedure and any other assistance in my power.
I would suggest that immediate action be taken in this matter, as the indictment for murder found by the late United States grand jury against a portion of their citizens has brought the People of this to such a pitch of excitement that any unnecessary delay would result in the disappearance of all trace of the identity of these captives, if not in their death.Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
R. A. WILBUR,
United States Special Agent for Papago Indians.
Lieutenant ROYAL E. WHITMAN, U. S. A.,
In charge of Apache Indians, Camp Grant, Arizona Territory.
Whereas I am informed, as I am departing for the Pinal Mountains with a large force for the purpose of exploring the agricultural and mineral resources of that region, that a commission has been ordered by the President of the United States to examine into the Indian affairs of the Territory, with the view, if possible, of securing a peaceful solution of the question, and my absence may continue until after the arrival of said commission; and whereas the object most desired by the people of this
Now, therefore, I, A. P. K. Safford; governor of Arizona, call upon all the officers and citizens of the Territory to receive said commissioners with kindness and hospitality, to give them all the aid and information upon the subject before referred to within your power and knowledge. They have been selected with a view to their integrity and humanity of purpose, and sent here in the legal performance of duty.
If they come among you entertaining erroneous opinions upon the Indian question and the condition of affairs in the Territory, then by kindly treatment and fair, truthful representation you will be enabled to convince them of their errors.
Given under my hand and the great seal of the Territory this 15th day of August, A. D. 1871.[SEAL.]
A. P. K. SAFFORD.
By order of the governor:
THEO. F. WHITE,
Assistant Secretary of the Territory.
SIR: I have the honor to report the result of my mission under the following special order:
"Hon. Vincent Colyer, special commissioner to the Apache Indians in this Territory, acting under the authority of the President of the United States, having requested that a party be sent out from this post with a flag of truce, with a view of inducing some of the Indians to come into McDowell for the purpose of a council, Captain Curtis, with twenty men of I Troop, and a detachment of one first lieutenant, one sergeant, and one corporal, and ten men of M Troop, will proceed in the direction of Old Camp Reno, accompanied by Salaza, the post guide, Francisco, Apache interpreter, belonging to Captain McGregor's command, and attracting the attention of Indians that vicinity endeavor to induce as many of them as possible to come in and visit Mr. Colyer; the latter will inform Captain Curtis what propositions to make these Indians if reached.
"The party will be provided with two day's rations, and get off immediately.
"By command of Major N. A. M. Dudley:"A. D. KING,
" First lieutenant Third Cavalry, Post Adjutant."
Lieutenant A. D. KING,
Post Adjutant, Camp McDowell, Arizona Territory.
In obedience to the above I left the post on September 25th, at 1 p.m. My party consisted of Lieutenant Wessell, Third Cavalry; Acting Assistant Surgeon V. Havard, United States Army; Captain W. M. C. Netterville, Twenty-first Infantry, as a volunteer; one sergeant, one corporal, and eight men from M Troop, Third Cavalry, and one corporal and nineteen men from I Troop, Third Cavalry, my own all mounted. In addition there were two packers, four pack-mules, and two guides, Francisco and Hadjeille, making in all thirty-eight persons and forty-two animals. About an hour and a half after crossing the river I saw signal smokes in the mountains about twenty miles ahead of me, and near the road I was to follow. They were kept up all day on the same range. I made signal in return, and continued on, reaching Sunflower Valley at about 1 a.m. There were no signal fires on the mountains last night. The next morning I built fires at daylight, and displayed the white flag, but there was no response; I waited until about 9 a.m. of the 26th, and started on, leaving a white flag in my deserted camp. I reached old Camp Reno, forty miles from the post, at about 12 a.m. Fresh trails were seen at various places along the road, though not in any large number, generally two or three at a time; one trail, a day or two old, within a mile of the post. The greater part, however, were seen after we left Sycamore Creek, ten miles from the post. Before I had fairly unsaddled at Reno, a signal smoke was made in the side of the mountain close to camp, apparently not more than a mile and a half away. I
Captain Third Cavalry, Commanding Troop I.
September 25, 1871.
GENERAL: In the event that some of the Apache Indians should be induced to come in at McDowell to be at peace, you are requested and authorized to protect, feed, and otherwise care for them, under the authority of the orders of the War Department, by direction of the President, dated Washington, D. C., July 18 and 31, 1871, (copies of which were forwarded to you on the 25th instant,) until such times as there may be a sufficient number to be forwarded to the reservation at Camp Grant, or to another reservation, which it may be found desirable to establish for the Tontos, at a place to be hereafter designated. Meanwhile you will please consider the limits this military reservation as an Indian reservation, and you are also authorized to purchase clothing, manta, calico, etc., to an amount not exceeding four hundred dollars.Very respectfully, your obedient servant.
GENERAL N. M. DUDLEY,
Arizona Territory, September 27, 1871.
CAPTAIN: General Dudley's party interpreter, and escort having failed to open direct communications with the Apache Indians near Camp Reno, though receiving many encouraging signs of a peaceable disposition on the part of the Indians, and the soldiers and animals bring to General Dudley's command requiring rest, will you have the kindness to send an interpreter with a white flag, and such escort as you may think necessary, starting within the next two days to the Apache Indians living in the direction from this post, with a view to bringing them in and placing them on a reservation where they can be protected, fed and otherwise cared for?
For your authority, I respectfully refer you to the inclosed copies from the War Department, dated July 18 and 31, 1871.Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Captain Thomas McGREGOR, U. S. A.,
Commanding Detachment Troops.
Prescott, Arizona Territory, September 22, 1871.
SIR: Referring to your communication of the 15th instant, and to Post Orders No. 70, Part II, Camp Grant, Arizona Territory, September 13, 1871, in which you report having prohibited armed bodies of citizens from approaching within ten miles of your post, I have to state that this would virtually prohibit the passage of any citizens over the public mail road from Tucson to Florence, which passes within four miles of your post. As all citizens in this Territory, in order to secure protection, must go armed, while it is your duty to give every assistance in your power to the peace commissioner, and protection to the Indians who may come peaceably disposed to your post, you must not forget the duties you owe to the citizens of this Government. Your action in this matter was unwarrantable, as you transcended the limits of your authority, and in future you will be governed by the proper military authorities and the customs of service in like cases, nor will you unnecessarily provoke the hostilities of the citizens toward the military and the Indians under their protection.Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Lieut. Col. Twenty-third Infantry, Brevet Major General U. S. A., Commanding.
Captain WILLIAM NELSON,
Twenty-first Infantry, Camp Grant, Arizona Territory.
October 5, 1871.
GENERAL: As there are a number of Hualapais Indians reported to be in a destitute condition in the neighborhood of Beal Spring Camp, Arizona Territory, who have lately been peaceable, will you have the kindness to see that they are fed, protected, and otherwise cared for, agreeably to the orders of the War Department dated Washington, D. C., July 18 and 31, 1871? The reservation within which the above order will apply shall be temporary, and extend for the distance of one mile around the camp, until such time as a more permanent reservation can be selected.Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Brevet Major General GEORGE CROOK,
Commanding Department of Arizona,
Camp Whipple, Prescott, Arizona Territory.
San Francisco, California, October 19, 1871.
GENERAL: Under the orders of the President, dated War Department, Washington, D. C., July 18, and supplementary order, July 31, 1871, copies of which have been forwarded to you, I have collected together several thousands of roving Apache Indians on reservations which I have selected in Arizona Territory, and requested the commanding officers at the military posts around which these reservations are located to feed, partially clothe, protect, and otherwise care for them, leaving the whole business under their supervision, until such time as the Department at Washington may otherwise order.
General J. M. SCHOFIELD, U. S. A.,
Commanding Division of the Pacific.
Washington, D. C., November 7, 1871.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith copy of a communication addressed to this Department by the Hon. Vincent Colyer, one of the board of Indian peace commissioners, who recently visited Arizona, wherein he states his views in relation to the Apache Indians, and describes certain tracts of country in Arizona and New Mexico, which, during his recent visit to said Indians, he has selected to be set apart as reservations for their use, as authorized to do by orders issued to him before visiting the Apaches.
I have the honor to recommend, in pursuance of the understanding arrived at in our conversation with the Secretary of War on the 6th instant, that the President issue an order authorizing said tracts of country described in Mr. Colyer's letter to be regarded as reservations for the settlement of Indians until it is otherwise ordered.
I have the honor, also, to suggest that the proper officers of the War Department be directed to inform the various bands of roving Apaches that they are required to locate upon the reservations immediately, and that, upon so doing, they will be fully protected and provided for by the Government so long as they remain on said reservations and preserve peaceable relations with the. Government, each other, and the white people ; and that unless they comply with this request they will not thus be provided for and protected.
I suggest that they also be notified that they will not be permitted to send their old men, women, and children upon such reservations, and permit their young men and braves to go upon the war-path.
I beg, also, to request that the proper officers of the War Department be instructed to notify the white people of Arizona and New Mexico of this determination of the Government to preserve, if possible, peace between the whites and the Indians, and that neither will be allowed to depredate or trespass upon the other, with impunity; and that so long and so far, as the Indians comply with these requirements of the Government, and settle upon these reservations before indicated, and conduct themselves peaceably thereafter, they will be protected by the Government to the full extent of its power, and no longer.
I beg also to inform you that it is the intention of this Department to communicate a copy of this letter to the superintendents of Indian affairs for Arizona and New Mexico, and to direct the superintendent of Indian affairs for Arizona to remove his headquarters immediately to the headquarters of the commanding officer of the department of Arizona, and to request him to co-operate fully with the officer in charge of the troops in Arizona, in the execution of the purpose of the Government, as indicated in this request, provided the views herein expressed shall have the approbation of the President and the War Department.
I would further suggest that the War Department will, for the present, select some suitable and discreet officer of the Army to act as Indian agent for any of the reser-
Such agents will be superseded by persons hereafter appointed by this Department, at such times as the President may hereafter deem proper.Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
C. DELANO, Secretary.
Washington, D. C., November 9, 1871.
Respectfully referred to the Secretary of War, who will take such action as may be necessary to carry out the recommendations of the Secretary of the Interior.U. S. GRANT.
Washington, D. C., November 9, 1871.
GENERAL: I now inclose you copies of a correspondence between the Secretary of the Interior and War Department on the subject of the policy that is to prevail in Arizona with the Apache Indians. The Secretary of War wishes you to give all the necessary orders to carry into full effect this policy, which is the same that prevails in the Indian country generally, viz: to fix and determine (usually with the assent expressed or implied of the Indians concerned) the reservations within which they may live and be protected by all branches of the Executive Government; but if they wander outside they at once become objects of suspicion liable to be attacked by the troops as hostile. The three reservations referred to in these papers, and more particularly defined in the accompanying map, seem far enough removed from the white settlements to avoid the dangers of collision of interest. At all events, these Indians must have a chance to escape war, and the most natural way is to assign them homes and to compel them to remain thereon. While they remain on such reservations there is an implied condition that they should not be permitted to starve, and our experience is that the Indian Bureau is rarely supplied with the necessary money to provide food, in which event you may authorize the Commissary Department to provide for them, being careful to confine issues only to those acting in good faith and only for absolute wants.
The commanding officer of the nearest military post will be the proper person to act as the Indian agent until the regular agents come provided with the necessary authority and funds to relieve them; but you may yourself, or allow General Crook to appoint these temporary agents regardless of rank.
The citizens of Arizona should be publicly informed of these events, and that the military have the command of the President to protect these Indians on their reservations, and that under no pretense must they invade them, except ender the leadership of the commanding officer having charge of them.
The boundaries of these reservations should also be clearly defined, and any changes in them suggested by experience should be reported, to the end that they may be modified or changed by the highest authority.
After general notice to Indians and whites of this policy, General Crook may feel assured that whatever measures of severity he may adopt to reduce those Apaches to a peaceful and subordinate condition, will be approved by the War Department and the President.I am, your obedient servant,
W. T. SHERMAN, General.
General J. M. SCHOFIELD,
Commanding Military Division Pacific.
The following order issued by General Sheridan relative to the Apache Indians under his jurisdiction :
Chicago, Ill., November 20, 1871.
To carry out the wishes of the Secretary of the Interior and instructions of the Secretary of War, relating to southern and other roving bands of Apache Indians, the following is ordered :
1. The valley of Tulorosa, in New Mexico, beginning at the head-waters of this river and its tributaries in the mountain, and extending down the Tulorosa ten miles each side for a distance of thirty miles, is declared and hereby announced to be an Indian reservation, for the sole use of the southern and other roving bands of Apache Indians, now in, or who may hereafter come into New Mexico, their agents and other officers, and such officers and employés of the military service as may be designated by competent military authority.
2. The Indians at the Cañada Alamosa agency, and all roving Apaches now in New Mexico, are hereby commanded to go immediately to the Tulorosa reservation, remain there, and preserve peaceable relations with the Government, the white people, and with each other. They are notified that they will not be permitted to place their old men, women, and children on the reservation, and send their young men and braves on the war-path. As long as the Indians remain on the reservation, and conduct themselves peaceably, they will be fully protected and provided for by the Government; if they fail to go upon the reservation in due time after having been informed of this order, or leave it after having once gone there, they will become objects of suspicion—liable to attack as hostile. The terms and conditions of this order will be applied to all Apaches who may hereafter go into New Mexico.
3. All concerned are hereby notified that the Government is determined, if possible, to preserve peace between the whites and Indians and to allow neither to depredate or trespass on the other, and it is the command of the President that the Indians be protected on their reservation, and that under no pretense shall their reservation be trespassed upon nor shall it be invaded except under the leadership of the commanding officer having charge of them.
4. The troops will co-operate with and aid the Indian Bureau to the full extent of their ability in transferring Indians to the Tulorosa reservation. A military post will be established there as soon as practicable, and full protection given to the Indians who remain peaceably on the reservation. If from want of supplies the Indian Bureau shall at any time be unable to provide for the Indians on the reservation, such issues will be made from the army supplies as may be necessary for the support of all the Indians who act in good faith.
5. The commanding general Department of the Missouri is charged with executing this order, and with issuing each further instructions as may be necessary to accomplish the purposes indicated. He will have the various bands of roving Apaches in New Mexico, or who may hereafter come there, informed as soon as practicable of the requirements herein set forth, and at the earliest convenient season will fix more specifically the boundaries of their reservation.
6. After general notice to Indians and whites of the policy above defined, the department commander in may feel secured that whatever measures of severity he may adopt to reduce these Apaches to a peaceful and subordinate condition will be approved by the War Department and by the President.
MILITARY DIVISION OF THE PACIFIC, Maj. Gen. J. M. Schofield, commanding.—In accordance with authority and orders received from the War Department, the following instructions are given for the government of Indians subject to military control in the Territory of Arizona :
All roving bands of Indians, for which reservations have been set apart by the Indian commission, under the authority of the President of the United States, will be required to go at once upon their reservations, and not to leave them again upon any pretext whatever. So long as they remain upon their reservations in due subordination to the Government, they will be fully protected and provided for; otherwise they will be regarded as hostile, and punished accordingly. The reservations heretofore set apart will be publicly declared in general orders from headquarters from the Department of Arizona, and an officer of the Army will be designated by the department commander to act as Indian agent for each reservation.
All male Indians (old enough to go upon the war-path) will be enrolled, and their names will be recorded in a book kept for that purpose, with a full and, accurate descriptive list of each person. Each Indian will be furnished with a copy of his descriptive list and will be required to carry it always with him. The numbers of women and children belonging to each head of family will also be recorded opposite his name in the descriptive book. The presence on the reservation of every male adult will be verified once a day, or oftener, if found necessary, to prevent the possibility of any leaving the reservation and returning without the knowledge of the officer in charge. Care will be taken to inform the Indians that this precaution is intended to insure the protection of the innocent and punishment of the guilty, and that it is to
Every Indian found off his reservation without permission, after a time to be fixed by the department commander, will be regarded and treated as hostile, and any Indian who shall so leave his reservation shall be presumed to have done so for hostile purposes, and upon his return to the reservation shall be arrested and punished accordingly. No Indian will be given permission to leave his reservation, except upon such conditions as the department commander may prescribe.
No persons except those in the United States service will be allowed upon any Indian reservation without the permission of the officer in charge. Citizens desiring to enter or cross a reservation for any legitimate purpose will, when it is deemed practicable and proper, be permitted to do so, but will always be escorted by a sufficient detachment of troops to prevent any collision with the Indians. The ration for issue to adult Indians will consist of one pound of meat and one pound of breadstuffs; two quarts of salt to each 100 rations, and four pounds of soap to 100 rations once a week. Rations in half of the above proportions will be issued to children under twelve years of age. Beef will be issued on the hoof. An officer will always be present to witness and direct the slaughtering of beef and the distribution of food among the separate bands and families, and will certify to the commanding officer that it is fairly done. The utmost care will be taken to see that rations are; issued only for the number of Indians actually present, and that no opportunity is afforded for the barter of provisions for arms, ammunition, whisky, or anything whatever. Active operations will be kept up against the hostile Apaches of Arizona, and pressed with all practicable vigor until they submit to the authority of the Government, cease from hostilities and remain upon their reservation. After a reasonable time has been given for all the Apaches to avail themselves of the liberal terms offered by the Government, the department commander will, in his discretion, make use of the friendly Indians to hunt out and destroy those who remain obstinately hostile. Full authority is conferred upon the department commander to adopt such measures as may be necessary to carry out these instructions, and to give full effect to the policy of the Government.By order of Maj. Gen. Schofield.
J. C. KELTON,
Assistant Adjutant General.
Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, November
COLONEL: I am directed by the commanding general to forward to you inclosed copies of letter from the Adjutant General of the Army to the Lieutenant General commanding the division, letter from the Secretary of the Interior to the President of the United States, and the order of General Sheridan based thereon. The orders of the commanding general in the case are as follows :
You are directed to execute the instructions and carry out the views therein contained, and in doing so you will be guided by the following instructions:
You will proceed in person without unnecessary delay to the Cañada Alamosa, and to such other points as may be necessary, and communicate to the Apaches within reach the commands of the President, giving the Apaches now on reservations thirty days in which to commence their movements to the Tularosa reservation. You will please inform the superintendent of Indian affairs for New Mexico of the orders you have received, and request him to accompany you, and to re-assert to the Apaches the commands of the President. In conjunction with him, (if he will co-operate with you,) you will take particular pains to inform the Apaches kindly, but firmly, of the necessities of the case, and of the measures which will be adopted unless they comply with the orders you convey to them. Use all proper means to acquaint them with the facts, and offer them all proper inducements to go peacefully and quietly to their reservation on the Tularosa, in accordance with the wishes and commands of the President.
It is above all things desirable that this movement of the Indians be accomplished peacefully and kindly, and without collision with the Indians or their agents which can be properly avoided. You are authorized to use whatever military supplies are at your command to effect the removal of the Indians, and their comfortable establishment on their new reservation, as also to supply them when there with whatever provisions are needed and cannot be supplied by the Indian Bureau.
You will establish a post at some suitable point on the Tularosa reservation, to be garrisoned
The proper agent of these Indians and for this reservation should be fully acquainted with your orders and the purposes of the Government, and should accompany the Indians and remain with them.
The protection to the Indians, while on route to and after they reach their reservation, against any intrusion or hostilities on the part of the whites or Mexicans, you are specially charged with and will be held responsible for.
You will, therefore, be careful to give timely and full notice to all the people in that part of the Territory, through the papers and otherwise, of this fact, and warn them accordingly.
You will also take the necessary measures to convey information of these commands of the President, and the consequences of not obeying them, to all the roving Apaches to whom by any means you can gain access, giving them thirty days in which to report at the Tularosa reservation.
After that time, in accordance with the orders of the President, all Indians found off the reservation at Tularosa "will become objects of suspicion, and liable to attack as hostile."
You had better place Lieutenant Colonel Devin, Eighth Cavalry, in general charge of this reservation and the execution of the foregoing and inclosed orders in relation to it, without removing him from the command of Fort Bayard, but with authority to use such parts of the garrisons of Cummings, Selden, McRae, and Craig as may at any time be needed. If necessary, you will place at Craig, or at any or all the other posts named, such additional cavalry as may be needed by Colonel Devin.
After the expiration of the time given by the notice to the Indians to remove to Tularosa, you are directed to conform your action in any case which may arise in regard to the roving Indians to the instructions contained in the order of the Lieutenant General, (copy inclosed.)
I desire to impress upon you the urgent wish of the department commander that these orders of the President and Lieutenant General of the Army be executed peacefully, kindly, and without violence, so far as it is possible to do so.
Acknowledge the receipt of this communication, and inform the department commander as frequently as necessary of your action under these instructions.
As early as practicable after the Tularosa reservation is occupied you will have it surveyed and plainly marked, so that it cannot be unknowingly intruded on.
A map of the reservation, with proper descriptive notes, will be made and forwarded to this office as soon as practicable.I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Assistant Adjutant General.
Colonel GORDON GRANGER,
Commanding District of New Mexico, Santa Fé, New Mexico.
By command of Major General Pope.
W. J. SARTLE,
Lieutenant and Adjutant Fifteenth Infantry, A. A. A. G.
W. J. SARTLE,
Acting Assistant Adjutant General.
*As we go to press there are nineteen hundred Indians at Cañada Alamosa.
*At the date of going to press there are nine hundred Indians at Camp Grant.
*Latest advices show that a party, Pimas and Maricopas, hearing that the warriors were all at Camp McDowell, had gone up to Reno and killed thirty-two defenseless women and children of the Tontos.—V.C.
*About fifty miles.--V. C